Does anyone know how I can find out which animals have a pre frontal cortex and which do not? I am interested becuase I came across a claim that seems highly suspicous printed in a book by a philosopher named Michael Murray. He claims animals have pain but they are not aware of their pain becuase this higher levels of awareness requires a pre frontal cortex which most animals dont have. I actually doubt the second claim too (that we can make such a direct relationshiop between consciouss awareness of pain and the pre frontal cortex) but thats going to be harder to research. If anyone can shed some light on this it would be much appreciated.