Yes, humans get negri bodies from rabies infection. The negri bodies are viral particle inclusions (ribonuclear proteins) from the massive amounts of virus being produced. For reasons unknown to me (not sure if it is known) rabies really "kicks into over drive" in certain neuron types--Like those in the hippocampus.
The only thing it is really good for is post-mortem confirmation--So they aren't all that useful in humans. There is iirc an ELISA that is more useful for early detection in humans, but I think its still a gamble. The rule is, if in doubt take the rabies prophylatic vaccine (preformed Abs to rabies) along with the inactivated vaccine for longer immunity (people who are "high risk" should get the inactivated anyway).