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I Are there particles associated with unified superforces?

  1. Jun 21, 2016 #1
    Layman question. In the Standard Model every fundamental force has associated particles, force carriers.
    We know that at sufficiently high energy levels electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force become unified in the electroweak force, and it seems likely that at even higher energies also the strong nuclear force should also become unified into a "higher" superforce.

    Whether gravity also merges them at even higher energies remains speculation but it might be the case.

    My question is, does theory predict particles (quanta) associated with those unified forces, same as there are particles for each single force, and if so, what are they called and what would be their properties? for example what would be the quantum of the electroweak force, how is it called and what properties would it have?

    Also, does the unification mean that all known particles stem from a single original "superparticle" (associated with the primordial superforce) which through phase transitions decayed into the different particles associated with each force? and again if so, what would be the properties of such a primordial superparticle?

  2. jcsd
  3. Jun 21, 2016 #2


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    Gold Member

    In the EW theory, the carriers are still fields like photons and Ws they are just massless...
    As for what the properties of each of the bosons are, the answer depends in the GUT you are talking about... there are GUTs that for example introduce additional gauge bosons like W or Z... there are GUTs that introduce additiona leptoquark bosons X,Y (as in SU(5) ). There is not a single GUT.

    I don't get the question, the particles are still the same, they might belong to different group representations.
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