# Black Hole Evaporation: Charged Particle Energy Effects

• zarei
In summary, there is a concept called Hawking radiation in which particles and antiparticles are created near the event horizon of a black hole. If an antiparticle falls into the black hole, the black hole's mass increases. However, if the particle is charged, it can carry positive energy and potentially escape the black hole, increasing its volume. This process occurs at the quantum level and is only observable to an outside observer. Ultimately, the emission of thermal radiation, not negative-energy particles, is what is observed. This discussion may be better suited for a different forum.

#### zarei

in classical electromagnetic a charge can make energy. Now consider Howking radiation effect: if an anti-particle fall into the BH the volume of BH will reduce. But if that particle be a charged particle, this charge can make positive energy and increase the volume. Is that right?

zarei said:
if an anti-particle fall into the BH the volume of BH will reduce.
I am not sure what you are referring to, or if what you read confused you. An anti-particle has a positive mass. If an anti-particle falls into a BH, the mass of the BH increases.

Independently of this, in Hawking's first calculations, one can interpret an anti-particle from the fluctuation of a pair as the one carrying negative energy (by definition), the particle being the one carrying positive energy (and this can be a positron BTW). This split near the horizon makes it possible for the particle to escape at infinity, whereas the antiparticle must keep falling. From an outside observer, the BH has emitted a particle. The particle-antiparticle definition is almost irrelevant in this context, except for the amount of energy carried and the possibility to escape at infinity, since most of those pairs are photons. Strictly speaking once again, a black hole will emit as much positrons as electrons (provided it is not charged. In fact, once it has emitted one electron, it is more likely to emit a positron). You can not go further in the interpretation : the process occurs at the quantum level and only the outside observer interpretation is a valid one that can be measured. Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a negative-energy real (anti-)particle. What is observed is the emission of thermal radiation, not negative-energy particles.

IMO, this discussion is not BtSM.

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humanino said:
IMO, this discussion is not BtSM.
I agree. I'm moving to General Physics: Doc Al or Zz may find a more suitable home for it.

## 1. What is the process of black hole evaporation?

The process of black hole evaporation is when a black hole loses mass and energy over time due to the emission of particles and radiation from its surface. This is due to the quantum effects near the event horizon, where particle-antiparticle pairs are constantly being created and one particle falls into the black hole while the other escapes.

## 2. How do charged particles affect black hole evaporation?

Charged particles can affect black hole evaporation by carrying away energy and causing the black hole to lose mass at a faster rate. This is due to the fact that charged particles are more likely to escape the black hole's gravitational pull compared to neutral particles. As a result, a charged black hole will evaporate faster than a neutral black hole.

## 3. Can black holes evaporate completely?

Yes, black holes can theoretically evaporate completely through Hawking radiation. However, this process would take an extremely long time for large black holes, on the order of trillions of years. Smaller black holes would evaporate faster, with a lifespan of only a few seconds for a black hole with the mass of a mountain.

## 4. What is the final state of a black hole after evaporation?

The final state of a black hole after evaporation is not yet known. Some theories suggest that the black hole will completely disappear, while others propose that a remnant will remain. However, the existence of a black hole remnant is highly debated and has not been confirmed by observations or experiments.

## 5. Can black hole evaporation be observed?

Black hole evaporation is currently not observable with current technology, as the process is very slow and black holes are extremely far away. However, scientists are constantly improving their understanding of black hole physics and developing new technologies that may one day allow us to observe the effects of Hawking radiation and black hole evaporation.