Black hole evaporation Definition and 5 Discussions

Hawking radiation is black-body radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes because of quantum effects near the black hole event horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking, who developed a theoretical argument for its existence in 1974.The requirement that black holes lose energy into the wider universe, and therefore can "evaporate" and the radiated spectrum are both a result of analysing black hole thermal equilibrium combined with extreme redshifting effects very close to the event horizon, with some consideration of quantum entanglement effects. A pair of virtual waves/particles arises just outside the event horizon due to ordinary quantum effects. Very close to the event horizon, these always manifest as a pair of photons. It may happen that one of these photons passes beyond the event horizon, while the other escapes into the wider universe ("to infinity"). A close analysis shows that the exponential red-shifting effect of extreme gravity very close to the event horizon almost tears the escaping photon apart, and, in addition, very slightly amplifies it. The amplification gives rise to a "partner wave", which carries negative energy and passes through the event horizon, where it remains trapped, reducing the total energy of the black hole. The escaping photon adds an equal amount of positive energy to the wider universe outside the black hole. In this way, no matter or energy ever actually leaves the black hole itself. A conservation law exists for the partner wave, which in theory shows that the emissions comprise an exact black body spectrum, bearing no information about the interior conditions.Hawking radiation reduces the mass and rotational energy of black holes and is therefore also theorized to cause black hole evaporation. Because of this, black holes that do not gain mass through other means are expected to shrink and ultimately vanish. For all except the smallest black holes, this would happen extremely slowly. The radiation temperature is inversely proportional to the black hole's mass, so micro black holes are predicted to be larger emitters of radiation than larger black holes and should dissipate faster.

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    A Why do we need a quantum correction for black hole entropy?

    Hey to all,... It is now generally believed that information is preserved in black-hole evaporation. This means that the predictions of quantum mechanics are correct whereas Hawking's original argument that relied on general relativity must be corrected. However, views differ as to how...
  2. nomadreid

    I Entangled particles in black hole decay?

    First, I was not sure whether this should go into the Relativity or the Quantum Physics rubric, but since the central question is about entanglement, I opted for the Quantum. I do not have the necessary sophistication to follow string theory arguments, and even most explanations in...
  3. S

    B Black hole explosions

    In Hawking's "Black hole explosions?" 1974 letter to Nature, he states: My question is: wouldn't it be a terrible idea to generate a black hole of any size in a particle accelerator?
  4. nomadreid

    I Looking at emission of Hawking radiation from inside

    Usually Hawking radiation is treated from the point of view of an observer outside the black hole (by which I mean the event horizon, not the supposed singularity), in which case it is possible (although maybe not convenient) to treat the black hole as not having an interior. However, let us...
  5. R

    I Hawking radiation and energy-negative energy pair production

    A black hole evaporates through hawking radiation, what I don't get is the requirement for an energy-negative energy pair production. Since it's the black hole's gravitational energy that's responsible for the pair production, even if one of them escapes, the black hole would lose energy anyway...