# Calculating CO2 Concentration For Pepper Spray Devices

• mzuern
In summary: Aerosols, particularly pepper sprays, use liquid CO2 as their propellant. The concentration of CO2 in the propellant is what determines the spray's strength.
mzuern
TL;DR Summary
I have a kid who wants to do a report on aerosols.
I have a kid who wants to do a report on aerosols. As I understand, we have researched that for pepper spray devices liquid CO2 is used as a propellant, but we can't find out how they calculate the concentration. Is there a place we can find the right formulas needed?

mzuern said:
Summary:: I have a kid who wants to do a report on aerosols.

I have a kid who wants to do a report on aerosols. As I understand, we have researched that for pepper spray devices liquid CO2 is used as a propellant, but we can't find out how they calculate the concentration. Is there a place we can find the right formulas needed?
Welcome to PF.

It's unlikely that they referenced liquid CO2, since that requires very low temperatures and typically dewars are used for that, not spray cans

symbolipoint
My mistake. It isn't liquid, but still how does someone determine how much is needed. Typically I think it only sprays for a maximum of 10 seconds. Is there a formula or ratio to determine amount needed?

symbolipoint
mzuern said:
we can't find out how they calculate the concentration
mzuern said:
Is there a formula or ratio to determine amount needed?

You seem to be using concentration and amount interchangeably - these are two different things, they mean different things and they can't be used freely one in place of the other (especially in the context of a school science project).

Please elaborate on what you want to find (and about the sources you consulted). It will really help us understand what you are looking for, right now we can only guess.

Liquid CO2 is pretty common at room temperature (and 80'ish bar IIRC) : that's the contents of the little tanks for seltzer bottles and some pellet guns ; it's the solid state that requires a low'ish temperature.

CO2 phase diagram

Maybe liquid nitrogen, which is used in spray cream, I think.

## What is the purpose of calculating CO2 concentration for pepper spray devices?

The purpose of calculating CO2 concentration for pepper spray devices is to ensure that the device is effective and safe for use. CO2 concentration is a crucial factor in determining the strength and potency of pepper spray, and it is important to have an accurate measurement in order to produce a product that is both effective and non-lethal.

## How is CO2 concentration calculated for pepper spray devices?

CO2 concentration is typically calculated by measuring the amount of CO2 gas in a given volume of air. This can be done using specialized equipment such as a gas chromatograph or a CO2 sensor. The concentration is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) or as a percentage.

## What is the ideal CO2 concentration for pepper spray devices?

The ideal CO2 concentration for pepper spray devices varies depending on the manufacturer and the intended use of the product. Generally, concentrations between 1-5% are considered effective for self-defense purposes. However, for law enforcement or military use, concentrations may be higher.

## Why is it important to have an accurate CO2 concentration for pepper spray devices?

An accurate CO2 concentration is important for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the pepper spray device. Too high of a concentration can cause serious harm or even death, while too low of a concentration may render the spray ineffective. Additionally, accurate measurements are necessary for proper labeling and compliance with regulations.

## What factors can affect the CO2 concentration in pepper spray devices?

The CO2 concentration in pepper spray devices can be affected by a variety of factors such as the type and quality of the pepper extract used, the pressure and temperature during production, and the storage conditions of the product. It is important for manufacturers to carefully control these factors to ensure a consistent and accurate CO2 concentration in their products.

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