It's for a project at school. I really need some help... I found this website... http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~dhw/A873/notes6.pdf and also here's my current work on my paper... STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1.) Is heat present in the outer space? 1.1) Are there any matter/ energy that may carry or produce heat in the outer space? 1.2) How can that matter/ energy carry and produce heat as it travels in the universe?2.) Is there equal distribution of particles/ matter in the universe? 2.1) Where do those particles/ matter come from? 2.2) Would the expansion be concentrated in specific areas?3.) Is the universe really expanding? 3.1) Will the universe continue to expand? 3.2) May the universe contract if it cools down? 3.3) How can heat support the expansion of the universe? Thank you so much for all of your help. And, additional information... I also came across a website that tells me that photons and neutrinos may have a collision and the heat produced from the kinetic energy will cause the universe to expand. but because of the neutrino- there will become a cooling effect. Then, the photon heats up the space again and the neutrino cools down. It's reapets over and over in infinity, just like the expansion of the universe.