# Heat Definition and 230 Discussions

In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms of energy transfer that define heat are stated in the next section of this article.
Like thermodynamic work, heat transfer is a process involving more than one system, not a property of any one system. In thermodynamics, energy transferred as heat contributes to change in the system's cardinal energy variable of state, for example its internal energy, or for example its enthalpy. This is to be distinguished from the ordinary language conception of heat as a property of an isolated system.
The quantity of energy transferred as heat in a process is the amount of transferred energy excluding any thermodynamic work that was done and any energy contained in matter transferred. For the precise definition of heat, it is necessary that it occur by a path that does not include transfer of matter.Though not immediately by the definition, but in special kinds of process, quantity of energy transferred as heat can be measured by its effect on the states of interacting bodies. For example, respectively in special circumstances, heat transfer can be measured by the amount of ice melted, or by change in temperature of a body in the surroundings of the system. Such methods are called calorimetry.
The conventional symbol used to represent the amount of heat transferred in a thermodynamic process is Q. As an amount of energy (being transferred), the SI unit of heat is the joule (J).

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1. ### Heating up of tyres on the road

I have searched online for this and found that it's due to friction. But for a rolling tyre there is only static friction acting and static friction produces no heat. For heat to be produced the two surfaces in contact must slide over each other i.e. there needs to be kinetic friction. Perhaps...
2. ### How could the discrepancy be reduced between the two readings?

I am able to solve part (a) using the relationship ##\frac {P_1} {T_1} = \frac {P_2} {T_1}##, where ##T_1 = 273.16## since its the triple point of water and ##T_2 =T_s## ##(T_s = ## melting point of sulphur). I use the two readings for thermometer A to get ##P_1## and ##P_2## as mentioned in the...
3. ### Questions about energy generation from coal

Hello : i was watching the news , and it was all about how Europe will start the coal factories again for energy generation had a question related to reduction of coal consumption for energy generation 1 ) could we use coal fine particles instead of chunks of coal that will burn more...
4. ### I Kappa factor in heat equation and heat Flux

I am doing a project, actually it is a simulation. And we aim to determine the spatial and heat flux evolution of the system. The system consists of two concentric cylinders separated by an insulating material. I change the value of kappa of the insulator but the heat flux remains always the...
5. ### Help understanding "Heat capacity"

Homework Statement:: First of, this is not a "homework" per say, since this is not in my curriculum. If you still want to help, see the description :) Relevant Equations:: C = Q/(delta T), where delta T is the raise in temperature in Kelvin and Q is the added heat energy I want to learn about...
6. ### B "Prove" that LPG burns with a blue flame ....

The household LPG burns with a blue flame. There's nothing to prove! But what if we attempt to do that? How do we go about it? I started with the assumption that it is a complete combustion of the LPG. A Google search tells me that the calorific value (the amount of heat a substance gives off...
7. ### A Einstein, Debye and Peierls approaches of the Heat Transfer

What is the difference between the approaches of Einstein, Debye and Peierls regarding the heat transfer?!
8. ### Energy transformations in an IC engine cylinder

A drop of fuel is ignited in an engine cylinder, that produces heat, light and sound energies from the chemical energy stored in the drop of oil. What I am not clear about is how heat energy gets transformed into mechanical work? I think the heat energy produced from ignition flows from burnt...
9. ### Relationship between Cp, Cv and R

According to me a=b cause what I have been learning is R is gas constant and hence it will be same for both. But the solution have says something else. According to them Cp-Cv=R/M where M is the molecular mass of gas. So is the above mentioned formula correct? Do we have to take that M term...
10. ### Energy Conservation and the Dragons (Game of Thrones)

I thought I'd calculate how much heat was required to melt the Iron Throne, and then multiply that by the number of flame-gushes during the sack of Kings Landing, to get a total amount of energy expended. Then I'd convert that to calories and use the average number of calories per goat to...
11. ### Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines #11

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not an easy topic. However, if you understand the concept of direction of thermodynamic processes and heat engines, you w...
12. ### Heat distribution in a piece of glass receiving protons

First of all, I didn't know whether to pick this subforum or the engineering/compsci one, I understand this might need to be moved to a more appropriate subforum. The general approach is fairly obvious, use implicit method to construct the tridiagonal matrix for Thomas method and solve. However...
13. ### Conduction heat transfer with varying cross section

How to modify this Formula? and arrive at the solution. Q = -K(Th-Tc)A/thickness
14. ### Why use c_p and not c_v as specific heat - Thermodynamics

Hey all, I am working on a problem that goes like this: The cargo space of a refrigerated truck whose inner dimensions are 12 m 3 2.3 m 3 3.5 m is to be precooled from 25°C to an average temperature of 5°C. The construc- tion of the truck is such that a transmission heat gain occurs at a rate...
15. ### Question about thermal physics -- Ice cubes melting in water

First, I calculated the heat required for the ice to melt: Q=mLf Q=0.150×330 Q=49.5 J Then, I calculated the final temperature of the water by forming the following equation: Q=mcΔT −49.5=(0.15+0.35)×4200×(Tf −80) Tf=80.0 degrees Celcius But the answer says 32 degrees Celsius.
16. ### Heat dissipated in a Resistor-Capacitor circuit

I tried to conserve the charge on the left plates of both the capacitors as intially the total charge on both is 48 and at t=t0 the total charge is 36(on c1) +4V(V is the potential across c2) so i got V=3 and then i conserved the energy Initial energy on both capacitor = final energy on both +...
17. ### IEC 60890 - Heat Rise Calculations

When designing a panel, it is imperative that you keep the components inside at a temperature which they can operate optimally at; allowing the air temperature to go above this limit can cause component failure and fire. To assist with calculating the air flow required to keep the components...
18. ### Inelastic Collision Question

In collisions that are inelastic or partially elastic, how can we predict how much of the energy lost to the surroundings becomes heat, and how much becomes sound? What determines that fraction?
19. ### Temperatures of the hot source and cold sink in a heat engine

Hi, I was just wondering about the efficiency of a cycle that is not Carnot cycle. In that case one should use \eta = 1-\left|\frac{Q_{\rm out}}{Q_{\rm in}}\right|, where Q_{\rm in} and Q_{\rm out} are the amounts of heat absorbed and released during the cycle. For instance, I guess that in...

Not attempt
21. ### A Can decoherence be associated with heat generation?

This question is inspired by a comment that @thephystudent made where he said that "The dephasing between the Bragg pulses is not unitary, I believe it can be explicitly written in Lindblad form and generates heat. I believe this Point of view is the same as (among others) the papers of...
22. ### Electromagnetic Waves and different energy manifestations

When an object is hot its particles are moving faster than when is cold, right? I've searched that particles are electrons and protons, so it means that if we warm a object the electrons will be moving or even accelerating. Every charge accelerated creates Electromagnetic Waves (or light)...
23. ### Types of Heat

The question is: why ##dq_{surr}=-dq_{sys}##? q=heat, surr=surroundings, sys=system. Is there any simple way to understand this?
24. ### I Is there a limit to how hot something can get, and if so why?

Question in the title .
25. ### Could somebody please explain the vapor compression cycle?

Heat is taken from food in the refrigerated space to the evaporator which has evaporated (I am assuming saturated vapor) refrigerant flowing through it. My first stumble would be, if this is true, why doesn't the temperature increase for the fluid coming out of the evaporator (unless it is...
26. ### Could you help me with this thermodynamics question?

So, I converted the V (milk) to m3 and found 1.8E-4 m3 and i already know the density so i found the mass of the milk in the bottle. Mmilk= 1.9E-7 kg Normally i would try to connect it with the formulas above but i don't know temperature. I am not sure how i can connect the dots. Can...
27. ### For a throttling valve, why is it that temperature remains the same?

For a throttling valve C.V analysis, I am wondering why is it known that temperature remains the same for ideal gases. I understand that using the energy balance equation, I end up with h1=h2. Pretty simple so far. By breaking down enthalpy into its components u1+P1v1 = u2+P2v2 I realized that...
28. ### What is the intuitive meaning behind the polytropic process.

What does it actually mean from an intuitive standpoint? I don’t want to simply memorize the equation. What is it really and when can it be used? What is the usefulness of it? Thanks.
29. ### What is the difference between flow energy and boundary work?

What is the difference between the two? Also, as another question, for enthalpy, is it correct to define it to be the sum of internal energy and flow energy or is there another understanding for it? Thanks in advance
30. ### Why is air in atmospheric pressure and room temperature a gas?

This seems like a simple thermodynamics question but I would like clarification. So the absolute critical temperature is 132.5 K (-221.17 F) and the absolute critical pressure is 3.77Mpa (546.7 psi). I understand that for temperatures above the critical point, a pure substance undergoes an...
31. ### How does specific volume play its role in the phase diagram?

So, I am casually sifting through a chapter in a thermodynamics textbook talking about the multiphase process that pure substances go through. I understand how the P-v and T-v diagram works and that out of the three properties (specific volume, temperature and pressure), two of them are...
32. ### Does temperature increase when water is boiling at 100C......

Does temperature increase when water is boiling at 100C in a closed system? I am picturing a scenario where I am boiling water in a pot to make pasta. However, I decide to close the pot as the water is still boiling. By doing this I am sealing away the system of study from the environment. Thus...
33. ### DIY Stirling engine project

hello, I had made an DIY alpha type Stirling engine for my physics project and now I have to write an report about the relationship between the heat given to the engine and the motion of the wheel. I had searched a lot about Stirling engines and I learned about work, energy, efficiency...
34. ### Minimum heat removed from gas to restore its state

Homework Statement After a free expansion to quadruple its volume, a mole of ideal diatomic gas is compressed back to its original volume isobarically and then cooled down to its original temperature. What is the minimum heat removed from the gas in the final step to restoring its state...
35. ### I Trying to better understand what viscosity really is

I'm trying to get a better handle on the actual physical phenomena underlying viscosity (for Newtonian fluids). Something I could word in the format of "this happens (and this and this), and so the fluid resists flow." What I've found online is that when gasses are at higher temperatures, they...
36. ### Mass of Ice required to achieve a certain final Temperature

Homework Statement An insulated beaker with negligible mass contains a mass of 0.350 kg of water at a temperature of 76.5 °C. How many kilograms of ice at a temperature of − 23.9 ∘C must be dropped in the water to make the final temperature of the system 40.0 ∘C? Take the specific heat for...
37. ### Why doesn't Q=0 instead of Q=W if T=constant in first law?

My understanding of heat is the energy transferred as a result of temperature imbalance between systems. If two systems at different temperatures are in contact with each other, a temperature change for both systems and an energy transfer Q is occurring. It is known that Q=W for a closed...
38. ### A wet cloth has been hung out to dry....

Homework Statement Wet clothing at 0°C is hung out to dry when the air temperature is 0°C and there is a dry wind blowing. After some time, it is found that some of the water has evaporated and the remainder has frozen. Estimate the fraction of the water originally present in the clothing which...
39. ### I Wavelength approaching the Planck length

If I heat up an object,the object emits a electromagnetic wave with a shorter and shorter wavelength. But if I heat an object up to Planck temperature, and making the EM wave that it emits has a wavelength of Planck distance,what will happen when I heat it up even more? Will the wavelength...
40. ### Getting the total energy

Homework Statement Please look at the screenshot. Homework Equations dimensional analysis The Attempt at a Solution Since the heat capacity is given as 11.3 kJ/(C*g), and energy is measured in Joules (or kJ), I thought to multiply 11.3 by the change in temp (7.3 C) and also 1.50 g of...
41. ### Calculate the final temperature of the solution

Homework Statement Consider the dissolution of CaCl2. CaCl2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq) ΔH = -81.5 kJ A 10.6-g sample of CaCl2 is dissolved in 109 g of water, with both substances at 25.0°C. Calculate the final temperature of the solution assuming no heat lost to the surroundings and assuming...
42. ### Heat supply to a system

My book states that Heat and work represent energy in transit. The state of the system undergoes a change after heat is supplied to it and before work is extracted from it because energy gets stored in it. My doubt is here that ,heat has been transferred to the system and it says heat is energy...
43. ### I The amount of time it will take to melt ice

What information / formulas do I need to calculate / estimate the amount of time required to melt an ice cube of temperature $T_i$ and mass $m$ in $M$ kg of $T_w$ temperature water? Assume that the system is insulated. Is it even possible? I'm fine with Calculus.
44. ### Ice cube in hot water

We have a glass containing 0.5 liter (0.5 kg) of water whose temperature 100 degrees Celsius. We also have an ice cube with mass 0.01 kg and temperature -10 degrees Celsius. The cube is put into the glass. The glass is then insulated from the outside world, until the cube has melted. What will...
45. ### Friction of a Wheel on the Axle?

So say I've got a wheel who's outer radius is 12" and the radius of the axle is 1.5", so the simple machine here is an 8 to 1 ratio. So I am wondering, since 1/2mv^2 is for kinetic energy, and the velocity here is 1/8th, does it mean the friction is 1/8th or 1/64th? does it get 1/8th hotter or...
46. ### When/How does thermal radiation stop (if it stops) and conduction

Consider two solid objects in the vacuum (of different materials, if you will) at different temperatures approaching each other until they make "perfect contact" through flat surfaces (no gaps or defects, so that thermal contact conductance effects are absent, even though interfacial thermal...
47. ### Why this special case occurs in an exchange of heat

Homework Statement Hello. First of all sorry about this question, it has to do a little with heat transfer from engineering. This situation is not real, I was working in a proyect and this doubt came to me. I have a heat exchanger of parallel tubes. Water flows in a tube and oil flows in...
48. ### I Heat equation plus a constant

I have seen how to solve the heat equation: $$\frac{ \partial^2 u(x,t) }{\partial x^2} = k^2 \frac{ \partial u(x,t) }{\partial t}$$ With boundary conditions. I use separation variables to find the result, but i don't know how to solve the equation plus a...
49. ### Change in temperature when a gas is in a moving container

Homework Statement Some gas at 300K is enclosed in a container. Now the container is placed on a fast moving train.is the change in temperature of the gas the same as the change dT observed when train suddenly stops? Homework Equations 1/2mv^2=dU?? or dU=0?? The Attempt at a Solution...
50. ### Heat released during combustion at constant pressure vs volume

Greetings! I've been brushing up on some thermodynamics recently and came across a perplexing sentence in my notes and text from undergrad. It says that for a combustion reaction, such as the combustion of heptane: C7H16 (l) + 11O2 (g) ---> 7CO2 (g) + 8H2O (l) That this process carried out at...