# heat Definition and Topics - 224 Discussions

In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The various mechanisms of energy transfer that define heat are stated in the next section of this article.
Like thermodynamic work, heat transfer is a process involving more than one system, not a property of any one system. In thermodynamics, energy transferred as heat contributes to change in the system's cardinal energy variable of state, for example its internal energy, or for example its enthalpy. This is to be distinguished from the ordinary language conception of heat as a property of an isolated system.
The quantity of energy transferred as heat in a process is the amount of transferred energy excluding any thermodynamic work that was done and any energy contained in matter transferred. For the precise definition of heat, it is necessary that it occur by a path that does not include transfer of matter.Though not immediately by the definition, but in special kinds of process, quantity of energy transferred as heat can be measured by its effect on the states of interacting bodies. For example, respectively in special circumstances, heat transfer can be measured by the amount of ice melted, or by change in temperature of a body in the surroundings of the system. Such methods are called calorimetry.
The conventional symbol used to represent the amount of heat transferred in a thermodynamic process is Q. As an amount of energy (being transferred), the SI unit of heat is the joule (J).

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1. ### A Einstein, Debye and Peierls approaches of the Heat Transfer

What is the difference between the approaches of Einstein, Debye and Peierls regarding the heat transfer?!
2. ### Energy transformations in an IC engine cylinder

A drop of fuel is ignited in an engine cylinder, that produces heat, light and sound energies from the chemical energy stored in the drop of oil. What I am not clear about is how heat energy gets transformed into mechanical work? I think the heat energy produced from ignition flows from burnt...
3. ### Relationship between Cp, Cv and R

According to me a=b cause what I have been learning is R is gas constant and hence it will be same for both. But the solution have says something else. According to them Cp-Cv=R/M where M is the molecular mass of gas. So is the above mentioned formula correct? Do we have to take that M term...
4. ### Energy Conservation and the Dragons (Game of Thrones)

I thought I'd calculate how much heat was required to melt the Iron Throne, and then multiply that by the number of flame-gushes during the sack of Kings Landing, to get a total amount of energy expended. Then I'd convert that to calories and use the average number of calories per goat to...
5. ### Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines #11

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is not an easy topic. However, if you understand the concept of direction of thermodynamic processes and heat engines, you w...
6. ### Heat distribution in a piece of glass receiving protons

First of all, I didn't know whether to pick this subforum or the engineering/compsci one, I understand this might need to be moved to a more appropriate subforum. The general approach is fairly obvious, use implicit method to construct the tridiagonal matrix for Thomas method and solve. However...
7. ### Conduction heat transfer with varying cross section

How to modify this Formula? and arrive at the solution. Q = -K(Th-Tc)A/thickness
8. ### Why use c_p and not c_v as specific heat - Thermodynamics

Hey all, I am working on a problem that goes like this: The cargo space of a refrigerated truck whose inner dimensions are 12 m 3 2.3 m 3 3.5 m is to be precooled from 25°C to an average temperature of 5°C. The construc- tion of the truck is such that a transmission heat gain occurs at a rate...
9. ### Question about thermal physics -- Ice cubes melting in water

First, I calculated the heat required for the ice to melt: Q=mLf Q=0.150×330 Q=49.5 J Then, I calculated the final temperature of the water by forming the following equation: Q=mcΔT −49.5=(0.15+0.35)×4200×(Tf −80) Tf=80.0 degrees Celcius But the answer says 32 degrees Celsius.
10. ### Heat dissipated in a Resistor-Capacitor circuit

I tried to conserve the charge on the left plates of both the capacitors as intially the total charge on both is 48 and at t=t0 the total charge is 36(on c1) +4V(V is the potential across c2) so i got V=3 and then i conserved the energy Initial energy on both capacitor = final energy on both +...
11. ### IEC 60890 - Heat Rise Calculations

When designing a panel, it is imperative that you keep the components inside at a temperature which they can operate optimally at; allowing the air temperature to go above this limit can cause component failure and fire. To assist with calculating the air flow required to keep the components...
12. ### Inelastic Collision Question

In collisions that are inelastic or partially elastic, how can we predict how much of the energy lost to the surroundings becomes heat, and how much becomes sound? What determines that fraction?
13. ### Temperatures of the hot source and cold sink in a heat engine

Hi, I was just wondering about the efficiency of a cycle that is not Carnot cycle. In that case one should use \eta = 1-\left|\frac{Q_{\rm out}}{Q_{\rm in}}\right|, where Q_{\rm in} and Q_{\rm out} are the amounts of heat absorbed and released during the cycle. For instance, I guess that in...

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15. ### A Can decoherence be associated with heat generation?

This question is inspired by a comment that @thephystudent made where he said that "The dephasing between the Bragg pulses is not unitary, I believe it can be explicitly written in Lindblad form and generates heat. I believe this Point of view is the same as (among others) the papers of...
16. ### Electromagnetic Waves and different energy manifestations

When an object is hot its particles are moving faster than when is cold, right? I've searched that particles are electrons and protons, so it means that if we warm a object the electrons will be moving or even accelerating. Every charge accelerated creates Electromagnetic Waves (or light)...
17. ### Types of Heat

The question is: why ##dq_{surr}=-dq_{sys}##? q=heat, surr=surroundings, sys=system. Is there any simple way to understand this?
18. ### I Is there a limit to how hot something can get, and if so why?

Question in the title .
19. ### Could somebody please explain the vapor compression cycle?

Heat is taken from food in the refrigerated space to the evaporator which has evaporated (I am assuming saturated vapor) refrigerant flowing through it. My first stumble would be, if this is true, why doesn't the temperature increase for the fluid coming out of the evaporator (unless it is...
20. ### Could you help me with this thermodynamics question?

So, I converted the V (milk) to m3 and found 1.8E-4 m3 and i already know the density so i found the mass of the milk in the bottle. Mmilk= 1.9E-7 kg Normally i would try to connect it with the formulas above but i dont know temperature. I am not sure how i can connect the dots. Can someone...
21. ### For a throttling valve, why is it that temperature remains the same?

For a throttling valve C.V analysis, I am wondering why is it known that temperature remains the same for ideal gases. I understand that using the energy balance equation, I end up with h1=h2. Pretty simple so far. By breaking down enthalpy into its components u1+P1v1 = u2+P2v2 I realized that...
22. ### What is the intuitive meaning behind the polytropic process.

What does it actually mean from an intuitive standpoint? I don’t want to simply memorize the equation. What is it really and when can it be used? What is the usefulness of it? Thanks.
23. ### What is the difference between flow energy and boundary work?

What is the difference between the two? Also, as another question, for enthalpy, is it correct to define it to be the sum of internal energy and flow energy or is there another understanding for it? Thanks in advance
24. ### Why is air in atmospheric pressure and room temperature a gas?

This seems like a simple thermodynamics question but I would like clarification. So the absolute critical temperature is 132.5 K (-221.17 F) and the absolute critical pressure is 3.77Mpa (546.7 psi). I understand that for temperatures above the critical point, a pure substance undergoes an...
25. ### How does specific volume play its role in the phase diagram?

So, I am casually sifting through a chapter in a thermodynamics textbook talking about the multiphase process that pure substances go through. I understand how the P-v and T-v diagram works and that out of the three properties (specific volume, temperature and pressure), two of them are...
26. ### Does temperature increase when water is boiling at 100C.....

Does temperature increase when water is boiling at 100C in a closed system? I am picturing a scenario where I am boiling water in a pot to make pasta. However, I decide to close the pot as the water is still boiling. By doing this I am sealing away the system of study from the environment. Thus...
27. ### DIY Stirling engine project

hello, I had made an DIY alpha type Stirling engine for my physics project and now I have to write an report about the relationship between the heat given to the engine and the motion of the wheel. I had searched a lot about Stirling engines and I learned about work, energy, efficiency...
28. ### Minimum heat removed from gas to restore its state

Homework Statement After a free expansion to quadruple its volume, a mole of ideal diatomic gas is compressed back to its original volume isobarically and then cooled down to its original temperature. What is the minimum heat removed from the gas in the final step to restoring its state...
29. ### I Trying to better understand what viscosity really is

I'm trying to get a better handle on the actual physical phenomena underlying viscosity (for newtonian fluids). Something I could word in the format of "this happens (and this and this), and so the fluid resists flow." What I've found online is that when gasses are at higher temperatures, they...
30. ### Mass of Ice required to achieve a certain final Temperature

Homework Statement An insulated beaker with negligible mass contains a mass of 0.350 kg of water at a temperature of 76.5 °C. How many kilograms of ice at a temperature of − 23.9 ∘C must be dropped in the water to make the final temperature of the system 40.0 ∘C? Take the specific heat for...