Chemistry behind the following tests

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In summary, acid-base titration is a laboratory technique used to determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution by measuring the amount of a standard solution needed to neutralize it. The flame test is a qualitative test that identifies the presence of metal ions in a compound by observing the color of the flame caused by the emission of specific wavelengths of light. Chromatography is a separation technique based on intermolecular forces used to separate components of a mixture. The Benedict's test detects reducing sugars in a solution by the reduction of copper (II) ions, producing a brick-red precipitate. The Biuret test detects proteins in a solution by the reaction between proteins and copper (II) ions, resulting in a violet color due to
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What is the chemistry behind the following tests?
1)Biuret
2)Xanthoprotic
3)Millon's
4)Mollisch's test(Carbohydrates)
 
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I find it hard to believe that a med student can't use google...
 
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1) Biuret test is used to detect the presence of proteins in a solution. It is based on the reaction between peptide bonds in proteins and copper ions in an alkaline solution. The copper ions form a violet-colored complex with the peptide bonds, indicating the presence of proteins.

2) Xanthoprotic test is used to detect the presence of aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and tryptophan, in a solution. It involves the addition of concentrated nitric acid which reacts with the amino acids to form a yellow color, indicating their presence.

3) Millon's test is used to detect the presence of proteins containing the amino acid tyrosine. It is based on the reaction between tyrosine and a solution of mercuric and nitric acid, which forms a reddish-brown color.

4) Mollisch's test is used to detect the presence of carbohydrates in a solution. It involves the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid, which dehydrates the carbohydrates and forms furfural or hydroxymethylfurfural. These compounds then react with a solution of alpha-naphthol to form a purple color, indicating the presence of carbohydrates.
 

Related to Chemistry behind the following tests

What is the chemistry behind acid-base titration?

Acid-base titration is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration of an acid or base in a solution. The chemistry behind this test involves the reaction between an acid and a base, known as a neutralization reaction. The concentration of the acid or base being tested is determined by measuring the amount of a standard solution needed to neutralize it. This is possible because of the known reaction between acids and bases, where an acid reacts with a base to form a salt and water.

How does the flame test identify different metal ions?

The flame test is a qualitative test used to identify the presence of certain metal ions in a compound. The test involves heating a sample of the compound in a flame and observing the color of the flame. This color is caused by the emission of specific wavelengths of light by the metal ions present in the compound. Each metal ion produces a unique color, allowing for the identification of the metal present in the compound.

What is the chemistry behind chromatography?

Chromatography is a separation technique used to separate the components of a mixture based on their properties. This technique relies on the principles of intermolecular forces, specifically the differences in polarity, size, and solubility of the components in the mixture. As the mixture is passed through a stationary phase, the different components will interact differently with the mobile phase, causing them to travel at different rates and separate from each other.

How is the chemistry behind the Benedict's test related to the presence of reducing sugars?

The Benedict's test is a chemical test used to detect the presence of reducing sugars in a solution. This test is based on the reduction of copper (II) ions to copper (I) ions by the reducing sugars present in the solution. The reaction between the reducing sugar and copper (II) ions produces a brick-red precipitate, indicating a positive result. The more reducing sugars present in the solution, the more copper (II) ions will be reduced, resulting in a darker color.

What is the chemistry behind the Biuret test for protein?

The Biuret test is a chemical test used to detect the presence of proteins in a solution. This test relies on the reaction between proteins and copper (II) ions, which results in the formation of a violet color. The reaction between the proteins and copper (II) ions is due to the presence of peptide bonds, which are the bonds that link amino acids together to form proteins. The more peptide bonds present, the stronger the color produced, indicating a higher concentration of proteins in the solution.

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