Since there's no board dedicated to the methodology of science, I thought that this board would be the best fit. Here's my question: Do the premises and elements of a theory have to be empirical? Or do they not have to be, as long as the theory is consistent with the observed data? By consistent I mean that the conclusion seems to be true, but the premises aren't empirical. I'm asking because from what I've seen, cognitive psychology relies on mental "modules" to explain empirical data. These modules can't actually be observed empirically, but the results put forward by the theories which rely on these non-empirical concepts seem to be more or less consistent with the evidence up to date.