Greetings. I am a new member posting for the first time. I teach chemistry and I have spent considerable time attempting to get a definitive answer to this question but have found only contradicting information. My query is regarding the nature of the electric force within and between atoms and molecules. In order to explain bonding I explain the difference between an electrostatic and an electromagnetic force to be if the particles are moving relative to one another. As such, I explain the force between protons and electrons to be electromagnetic since electons are moving. The problem I have arises when explaining intramolecular bonding. First, why are ionic and metallic bonds generally classified as intramolecular rather than interatomic? Second, if the force in a metallic bond is electromagnetic since it is between cations and moving delocalized electons, and the force between ions is electostatic since the ions are not moving, what type of force exists in a covalent bond? Since the attraction holding the atoms together is between the atoms and the shared electons placed in the molecular orbital, isn't it actually electromagnetic? Thanks in advance to anyone who takes the time to read this lengthy post and indulge my ignorance by providing an answer!