1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data The compounds P, Q and S, were separately subjected to nitration using HNO3/H2SO4mixture. The major product formed in each case respectively, is : 2. Relevant equations 3. The attempt at a solution This is a standard EAS reaction. I know the answer will be either C or D, because in case of (P) -OH is more activating so the substitution will be with at ortho with respect to -OH (as para is blocked), similarly in case of (Q), it will be oath with respect to -OCH3 (more activating). I don't understand what with respect to S. Is the -OC=O group electron withdrawing or donating? I thought it was withdrawing because the lone pair on oxygen is in resonance with the C=O bond (not with the benzene as the resonance with C=O is much more stable due to equivalent resonance structures (the reason why carboxylic acids are so stable). So, I thought the answer would be D and the substitution would occur at the meta position. But the answer is C. Help?