In this text is explained why our universe exists and why there are nature’s laws. The explanation is given in two parts: Part 1: Why does our universe exist? Part 2: Why does nature’s laws exist? The explanation uses concrete examples, to make the text as comprehensible as possible. At the end is a complete example of a mini universe (that of course exists) where two simple elementary particles and multiple physical laws exist. Scientific justification The theory is in accordance with the scientific approach (step 1,2,3): 1. We start with an observation: We notice that our universe exists. 2. We set up a theory to explain this observation. It is evident that the theory must have the potential to explain everything that happens in our universe, and definitely may not be in conflict with any observation. The approach is that the theory itself is build up, starting from what inevitable exists, and applying logical conclusions to this. Therefore it’s in fact no theory, but a prove with as conclusion that all kinds of universes inevitable exist. 3. From the theory follows predictions of other observations. The theory covers the explanation of the whole universe. So, besides the fact that the theory should explain everything that happens in our universe, there is nothing else to explain in our universe. Part 1: Why does our universe exist? Before a whole universe can exist, we should of course first explain how something can exist. We will set up a reasoning related to the existence of forces, and extend it afterwards to the existence of other physical quantities. Consider a force F = 1 Newton, with a given direction and sense It is obvious that: 5 F = 3 F + 2 F = 7 F – 2 F = 5 F + 0 F = … So, there are an infinite number of possibilities to write 5 F, that are all completely equivalent with 5 F. For 0 F the same reasoning can be made. 0 F = 5 F – 5 F = 5 F – 2 F – 2 F – 1 F = … Again there are an infinite number of possibilities to write 0 F. We will call “0 multiplied with the unit of a physical quantity” the zero-quantity (for the physical quantity). Notice that this is not just theory. Applying +5 F and -5 F in a point, has exactly the same effect as applying no force in this point at all. In the examples above we could replace F by apples or elephants. Unfortunately (to give an example from our daily life) there exists no -2 apples or -2 elephants in our world. But in principle, with a little good will, we can imagine that there exist an elephant in a special kind of antimatter so that 2 elephants in antimatter completely neutralize 2 elephants in matter. The only thing that is important to understand and remind from the example of apples or elephants, is that 5 F or 5 elephants are essentially quantities, and no coordinates or something like that. (1) Because it are quantities, it is obvious that the absence of F or elephants is the same as 0 F or 0 elephants. (2) That the absence of something exists is obvious. There are enough places to find where there are (exist) no elephants (= 0 elephants). From (1) and (2) follows that 0 F or 0 elephants exist. Let’s continue with the example of the forces. If 0 F exists then an infinite number of other representations (ex. 5 F – 5 F ) that are completely equivalent with 0 F also exist. Notice that 5 F in the example above does not exist on itself. It is indeed 5 F – 5 F that exist. The reasoning that is made for forces, can be made in precisely the same way for other physical quantities in our universe. (electric field, position in space, …) The only condition is that for each value of a physical quantity there should be an additive inverse value of a physical quantity, so that the sum of both equals the zero-quantity. In the following text, only this kind of physical quantities will be considered. To make the picture complete of all that exists (even what is no part of our universe), the following reasoning can be made. In order that values of a physical quantity exist, two conditions should be fulfilled. 1. The values of a physical quantity should be possible. Something “is possible” is precisely the same as saying that “something is not impossible”. So, if there exists no reason that excludes a value of a physical quantity, then the value of the physical quantity is possible. 2. There should be a reason so that possible values of a physical quantity effectively exist. The zero-quantity (= 0 multiplied with the unit of a physical quantity) exists for each physical quantity. Therefore (as shown in the beginning of part 1) all combinations, of possible values of physical quantities (ex. 2 F; -7,31 F), for which the sum equals the (existing) zero-quantity also exist. It is obvious that when A = B, and A exists, that B of course also exists. Conclusion In this part is explained that from a collection of possible (= no reason to exclude) values of a physical quantity, all combinations wherefore the sum equals the existing zero-quantity also exist. In other words, all possible ways to represent an existing zero-quantity of course also exist. Part 2: Why does nature’s laws exist? The simple rule that the sum of the values of a physical quantity (that are possible) should equal the zero-quantity, is of course not sufficient to explain complex laws in our universe. Although … As long as one physical quantity is considered, or multiple physical quantities are considered that exist on itself, completely unconnected from each other (ex. time and position on an X-axis), then there are no physical laws possible as in our universe. The situation changes completely when multiple physical quantities are considered that are somehow connected with each other. We will call physical quantities that are connected with a relation to each other from now on “bound physical quantities”. Example 1: Consider following bound physical quantities: . x: Position on an X-axis. (m) ; (we will call this from now on “position”) . t: Time (s) . v = dx/dt: Speed (m/s) Notice that speed, because of its definition (dx/dt) can only exist when also position and time exist. So, because of the introduction of the physical quantity speed, the two other physical quantities (position and time) automatically also exist, and because of the definition of speed (dx/dt) the three physical quantities are even linked to each other by the following relation: dx = v . dt ; (“.” point stands for the multiplication) For each of these physical quantities we can define a physical unit: . Ex: unit of length (1 m) . Et: unit of time (1 s) . Ev: unit of speed (1 m/s) We will call a collection of linear independent physical units from now on a “basis”. Elements that can be expressed as a linear combination of the 3 physical units will be noted as follows: (x, t, v) This element corresponds with respectively the 3 following values for the 3 physical quantities: x . Ex , t . Et , v . Ev Consider now for each physical quantity of the basis, the value that corresponds with the zero-quantity. This is an element, that we call the zero-element for the basis. In this example the zero-element is (0, 0, 0). Universe Consider a basis, consisting of physical units, for a collection of bound physical quantities. We will call a universe, a collection of elements, where each of these elements can be expressed as a linear combination of the physical units from the considered basis. Thereby the elements of the collection should be possible, and the sum of the elements must equal the zero-element. Thereby the following is already shown: . That complex nature’s laws exist because the physical quantities are bound. . That the zero-element is an element that effectively exists. . That elements that are possible (no reason that excludes the existence of these elements), effectively exist on the condition that the sum of these elements equals the (existing) zero-element. (for a concrete development of a mini universe, see example 2) Remarks: 1. Our universe, of course, also obeys the definition of a universe given above. 2. In our universe we see that everything is connected with everything through nature’s laws. This is precisely what we expect when the elements of a universe are a linear combination of a collection of bound physical units. 3. The here proposed universe explains well the singularity (big bang theory) from which our universe originates. This is the zero-element (of course t = 0 s) in the given explanation. 4. Scientists agree that space itself expands, starting from the big bang. This is also what we expect, based on the explanation in this text. The zero-element corresponds of course with t = 0 s. When we assume that on that moment there are no other elements with t = 0 s part of our universe (= collection of elements), then there also doesn’t exist any space at that time. Space starts existing after (and maybe before) t = 0 s. 5. The given explanation allows the existence of all kind of stable particles. Those particles have a wave character precisely as we see in our universe. 6. The given explanation leads to a good understanding of time and time perception. A given physical quantity dx/dt implies that for each element (x, t) also the following element (x + dx, t + dt) exists. If only (x, t) exists, then dx/dt would be a meaningless concept. Because of the existence of this kind of physical quantities (d…/dt), in each element the link with the next element in time is made. By this mechanism we get the sense of time perception. 7. There are lots of alternative reasoning’s (using complete different starting points) that leads to the same conclusions as given in this text. Besides this, it can be proved that the explanation in this text is the only possible explanation for the existence of our universe! So, it is not just the first explanation for our universe, it is also the only explanation for the existence of our universe. 8. What is described in this text can perfectly be described using the theory of vector spaces. For the basis vectors of a vector space, we just have to choose “physical units, for a collection of bound physical quantities”. Some basic ideas that are explained in this text, are almost literally what is stated in the definition of vector spaces. Example: “There exists an element 0 ∈ V (Vector space), called the zero vector, such that v + 0 = v for all v ∈ V” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_space There is not written, “… sometimes exists …” or “… the zero vector not really exists …”. Until now no one questionings the theory of vector spaces. Each of the remarks above can be worked out further, but it is not the purpose of this text, to write a whole book with a lot of mathematics. When someone is interested, then each of the statements above can be discussed in further detail. To make it all a bit more concrete, an example of a mini universe is given. Unfortunately the text is a bit too long to post on this forum, therefore the full text together with the example of a mini universe can be found in the attachment.