Few simple questions about atomic structure and properties

In summary, the presence of delocalized electrons in graphite results from the bonding of each carbon atom to three others, leaving one electron to act as a charge carrier. This explains the property of graphite having layers. In contrast, the low melting point of group 1A metals is due to their loose packing and only one delocalized electron per atom. In the center of the transition series, the d orbital electrons also become delocalized, resulting in a stronger metallic bond and higher melting points.
  • #1
mjolnir80
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Homework Statement


a)what property of graphite is the result of the presence of delocalized electrons?
b)what is the reason for the generally low melting point of group I A metals as compared with the high melting points of metals in the center of the transition series?



The Attempt at a Solution



a) is it the layers?
b)i thinks it the higher charge on the transition metals

thanks in advance
 
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  • #2
well, in graphite each carbon atom is bonded to three other carbon atoms forming layers of hexagonal rings. one valence electron is left out, which acts as a charge carrier in the lattice.

in group 1 there is loosing packing and only 1 electron delocalised per atom. hence weak metallic bond. in transation metals d orbital electrons get delocalised as well, hence a stronger metallic bond.
 
  • #3


a) The property of graphite that is the result of the presence of delocalized electrons is its electrical conductivity. The delocalized electrons allow for the easy flow of electricity through the layers of graphite.

b) The reason for the generally low melting point of group I A metals is due to their low atomic mass and the presence of only one valence electron. This results in weaker metallic bonds, making it easier for the metal atoms to break apart and melt at lower temperatures. In contrast, the high melting points of metals in the center of the transition series are due to their higher atomic masses and the presence of multiple valence electrons. This results in stronger metallic bonds, making it more difficult for the metal atoms to break apart and melt at higher temperatures. Additionally, the presence of d-orbitals in the transition metals also contributes to their higher melting points.
 

What is an atom?

An atom is the basic unit of matter. It is made up of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and electrons that orbit around the nucleus.

What is the atomic number?

The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. It determines the element's identity and its placement on the periodic table.

What is an element?

An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom. It is characterized by its atomic number and chemical properties.

What is an isotope?

An isotope is a variation of an element that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. This affects the element's atomic mass but not its chemical properties.

What is an electron shell?

An electron shell is a region surrounding the nucleus of an atom where electrons are most likely to be found. The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons, while the second and third can hold up to 8 electrons each.

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