There's constantly people saying that genes are the reason for this and that. But I don't get it, as far as I know we have somewhat of an understanding of what genes do. And if I'm not completely mistaken what genes do is encode a certain family of proteins and regulate their expression in the cells. Now exactly how does a certain protein being expressed at a certain time affect human behaviour and culture? Doesn't the brain mostly shape itself from stimuli from the environment? Is there any example of a clear link between a protein and behaviour? Certainly the proteins make the structure of the body, but how does the structure of your body make for your culture? Isn't culture, technology, language, all that just an accumulation of memory stored in the brain and other external devices? And that memory doesn't come from a gene. Is behaviour really not learned? Or if it's partially affected by genes, how? I ask because I recently met some race and intelligence people(about intelligence, are we really sure it is some intrinsic quality and not just a label we give to people we like and who happen to behave in some way recognizable as "intelligent"(and this goes back to the question of how does a protein make behaviour) eg. paying attention to some important detail that most overlook, reasons for which could be many?) who insist on genetic differences being a leading cause of cultural differences and this got me thinking that it is really a much more widespread notion that "we are our genes" or whatever. And I did not know of any other place to ask. So the bottom line is, are genes really so important and can anyone provide an example of how a gene modulates human behaviour?