Hello everyone, I'm new here. I'm a space engineering student and every time I learn something 1000 new questions come to my mind (as usual with science!). Most of my education was from an industrial (practical) point of view, so I feel very, very curious about the science behind the technique. (And I want to be the kind of engineer who understands science rather than applying it blindly). Ok, enough intro, let's go to the question. What I know: SPEs are mostly protons at several hundred MeV, can cause a dose-equivalent of a few Sv in a matter of hours, but relatively easy to shield. Usually a small storm shelter is designed in a manned spacecraft. The space agency can predict such events, but "how" is not the industry's business :-/ Anyway a radiation detector shall be included in case the prediction fails or communications are impossible. What I've searched: Read several articles around the internet during my education, now searched the forum before posting and there were several threads. The most useful links I found there are this and this. What remains unanswered/I'd like to know: 1) How do scientists predict SPEs? Is it magnetic reconnection in the Sun's magnetic field? 2) How do SPEs relate to flares and coronal mass ejections (CME), do they always cause SPEs? Sometimes? 3) How much proton radiation (in Gy or Sv) can a CME cause? Is it small? If not, why was I only taught about SPEs if CMEs are also dangerous? (Also, not sure I fully understand the difference between an SPE and a CME). Of course, as I'm willing to learn, I will greatly appreciate links to articles for further reading. Thanks!