How Do Charge Distributions Affect Electric Potential in Physics Problems?

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In summary: I'll let you figure out the rest.)Then I plugged that into the integral given for a continuous distribution of charge, calling r^2=x^2+y^2 and integrating dx from 0 to x. The answer I get is not what the book gives from the contribution from dx. Am I wrong in assuming a constant y?Right. That's not really a valid assumption.Ignoring the 2.12! After taking some time back to think, my change in area per strip is ##dxdy##, and I hold ##dx## constant while considering the contribution from it, and integrate ##dy/r## from 0 to x##a/b. That gets me pretty close, and then just integrating ##dx##
  • #1
Bashkir
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These are more mathematics than they are problems with understanding of physics.
1. Homework Statement

The problems are 2.18 and 2.12 which are as follows,

2.18A hollow circular cylinder, of radius a, and length b, with open ends, has a
total charge Q uniformly distributed over its surface. What is the dierence in
potential between a point on the axis at one end and the midpoint of the eaxis?
Show by sketching some eld lines how you think the eld of this thing ought to
look.

2.12 The right triangle with vertex P at the origin, base b, and altitude a has a uniform surface charge, sigma.
Determine the potential at the vertex. First consider the contribution from a strip of width dx.

Homework Equations


The Attempt at a Solution


For 2.18, I arrived at the correct solution, but I am having trouble grasping a few concepts.

I started by calling the cylinder a set of segmented rings of thickness dx. The charge on each of these rings should be proportion to the total Q times the ratio of dA/A. or,

[tex]dq=Q\frac{dA/A}=\frac{Q/l}[/tex]

I reasoned that the radius of the cylinder was constant, so we were differentiating with respect to l. So far so good I think. Since it was a continuous charge distribution I wrote

[tex]\phi=\int\frac{dq/r}=\frac{Q/b}\int\frac{dx/r}[/tex]

I was stuck here and after looking for help online I was able to come to the limits of integration and then the rest of the problem became trivial.

I don't know how to Tex the limits of integration, but the upper bound and lower bounds were respectively b/2+x and -b/2+x

The limits of integration confuse me. The x is just some arbitrary distance on the x axis. What I've gathered is, the upper bound basically gives you any point on the positive x axis, and then the lower bound gives you any point on the negative x-axis, even past the cylinder if you allow x to be a negative constant. Is this correct thinking? That was the only way I could rationalize it to myself, and if it is correct, how do I implore this type of analytical thinking? Is it really just practice and patter recognition? I don't think I would have ever come to those bounds. I would have attmped b/2 and -b/2 forever.

For 2.12 I am also having a little bit of mathematical trouble.

[tex]dq=\sigma da[/tex]

for da I called it,

[tex]da=\frac{1/2}ydx[/tex]

Y I solved for by using the fact that theta stays constant so

[tex]\tan\frac{y/x}=\tan\frac{a/b}[/tex]

Then I plugged that into the integral given for a continuous distribution of charge, calling r^2=x^2+y^2 and integrating dx from 0 to x. The answer I get is not what the book gives from the contribution from dx. Am I wrong in assuming a constant y?
 
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  • #2
Ignoring the 2.12! After taking some time back to think, my change in area per strip is dxdy, and I hold DX constant while considering the contribution from it, and integrate dy/r from 0 to xa/b. That gets me pretty close, and then just integrating dx from 0 to x gives me the correct answer.
 
  • #3
Bashkir said:
These are more mathematics than they are problems with understanding of physics.
1. Homework Statement

The problems are 2.18 and 2.12 which are as follows,

2.18A hollow circular cylinder, of radius a, and length b, with open ends, has a
total charge Q uniformly distributed over its surface. What is the dierence in
potential between a point on the axis at one end and the midpoint of the eaxis?
Show by sketching some eld lines how you think the eld of this thing ought to
look.

2.12 The right triangle with vertex P at the origin, base b, and altitude a has a uniform surface charge, sigma.
Determine the potential at the vertex. First consider the contribution from a strip of width dx.

Homework Equations


The Attempt at a Solution


For 2.18, I arrived at the correct solution, but I am having trouble grasping a few concepts.

I started by calling the cylinder a set of segmented rings of thickness dx. The charge on each of these rings should be proportion to the total Q times the ratio of dA/A. or,
[tex]dq=Q\frac{dA}{A}=\frac{Q}{l}[/tex]
You need to define your variables. We can't read your mind or see what's on your paper. In any case, that last expression can't be right. It doesn't contain a differential. Also, the units don't work out.

I reasoned that the radius of the cylinder was constant, so we were differentiating with respect to l. So far so good I think. Since it was a continuous charge distribution I wrote
[tex]\phi=\int\frac{dq}{r}=\frac{Q}{b}\int\frac{dx}{r}[/tex] I was stuck here and after looking for help online I was able to come to the limits of integration and then the rest of the problem became trivial.
You're trying to calculate the potential at a point, right? What variable represents where the point is?

I don't know how to Tex the limits of integration, but the upper bound and lower bounds were respectively b/2+x and -b/2+x

The limits of integration confuse me. The x is just some arbitrary distance on the x axis. What I've gathered is, the upper bound basically gives you any point on the positive x axis, and then the lower bound gives you any point on the negative x-axis, even past the cylinder if you allow x to be a negative constant. Is this correct thinking? That was the only way I could rationalize it to myself, and if it is correct, how do I implore this type of analytical thinking? Is it really just practice and patter recognition? I don't think I would have ever come to those bounds. I would have attmped b/2 and -b/2 forever.

For 2.12 I am also having a little bit of mathematical trouble.
[tex]dq=\sigma da[/tex] for da I called it,
[tex]da=\frac{1}{2}y\,dx[/tex]
I fixed your LaTeX for you. The way it rendered before, it was very misleading. You really need to proofread your post. Your expression for ##da## is wrong but at least now the units make sense.

Y I solved for by using the fact that theta stays constant so
[tex]\tan\frac{y}{x}=\tan\frac{a}{b}[/tex]
If you mean that ##y## is the height of the strip, then you don't want the ##\tan##s in there. It's just basic geometry of similar triangles: ##\frac{y}{x} = \frac{a}{b}##.

Then I plugged that into the integral given for a continuous distribution of charge, calling r^2=x^2+y^2 and integrating dx from 0 to x. The answer I get is not what the book gives from the contribution from dx. Am I wrong in assuming a constant y?
Since you figured the problem out, can you identify why your initial approach wouldn't work?
 

Related to How Do Charge Distributions Affect Electric Potential in Physics Problems?

1. What are some common challenges in solving problems in Chapter 2 of Purcell?

Some common challenges include understanding the concepts and principles being applied, correctly setting up and solving equations, and interpreting the results in a meaningful way.

2. How can I improve my problem-solving skills for Chapter 2 in Purcell?

Some ways to improve problem-solving skills include practicing regularly, seeking help from a tutor or mentor, breaking down the problem into smaller parts, and reviewing the relevant concepts and equations.

3. Are there any helpful resources or tips for solving problems in Chapter 2 of Purcell?

Yes, there are many helpful resources available such as online tutorials, study guides, and practice problems. It can also be helpful to work in a group or study with a partner to discuss and solve problems together.

4. How important is it to understand the underlying principles and concepts in Chapter 2 of Purcell?

Understanding the principles and concepts is crucial for solving problems in Chapter 2 of Purcell. Without a solid understanding of the concepts, it can be challenging to correctly set up and solve problems.

5. What are some real-world applications of the problems found in Chapter 2 of Purcell?

Problems in Chapter 2 of Purcell are often related to topics such as motion, forces, and energy, which have many real-world applications. Some examples include designing structures or machines, understanding the motion of objects, and analyzing the forces acting on a system.

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