# How Does the Velocity of Distant Stars Relate to the Mass of the Universe?

• cosmosmike
In summary, the further away a galaxy or star is from us, the faster it is moving away based on the red shift phenomenon. The maximum velocity of these faraway objects can be extrapolated up to 3 times the speed of light, but this is not an inertial velocity and does not affect the mass of the universe. Hubble's law states that the greater the separation distance, the greater the recessive velocity. This is a mathematical consequence and not the proper velocity of these objects. Therefore, galaxies and stars do not gain mass due to their recessive velocity. The article "Inflation and the Cosmological Horizon" by Brian Powell discusses these misconceptions in more detail.
cosmosmike
Stars and galaxies that are further away from us are moving away faster, based on the red shift. What is the relationship between the maximum velocity of the furthest ones, as a fraction of the speed of light, and the mass of the universe? If we extrapolate the velocity up to the speed of light, what does that give, hypothetically, for the mass?

Galaxies that are far enough away are receding from us faster than the speed of light.

$$V=Hd$$ where v is the recessive velocity. Hubble's law states the greater the separation distance the greater the recessive velocity. So objects past a certain point called the Hubble's sphere objects will recede faster than the speed of light up to 3c. However this is not an inertial velocity. Neither is this the galaxies proper velocity. Recessive velocity is a mathematical consequence of the separation distance. Let's use an example you measure galaxy A at 3c from Earth, and you were to teleport to a nearby galaxy to galaxy A its recessive velocity would be roughly the same as we would measure a nearby galaxy to the milky way, which is far less than 3c.

So as recessive velocity is not an inertial velocity, galaxies will not gain mass due to inertia.

a good article covering these misconceptions in a low level math article is
"Inflation and the Cosmological Horizon"
by Brian Powell
http://tangentspace.info/docs/horizon.pdf

## 1. What is the farthest star ever discovered?

The farthest star ever discovered is GN-z11, located approximately 13.4 billion light-years away from Earth.

## 2. How do scientists measure the velocity of faraway stars?

Scientists use a technique called spectroscopy to measure the velocity of faraway stars. This involves analyzing the light emitted by the star and looking for shifts in the wavelength, which can indicate the star's velocity.

## 3. Can the speed of a star change over time?

Yes, the speed of a star can change over time due to a variety of factors such as gravitational forces from other objects, interactions with companion stars, and internal processes within the star itself.

## 4. What is the fastest moving star in our galaxy?

The fastest moving star in our galaxy is US 708, which has a velocity of approximately 1,200 kilometers per second.

## 5. Are there any stars that are moving away from us faster than the speed of light?

No, according to the laws of physics, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, no stars can be moving away from us faster than the speed of light.

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