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Why does water evaporate when heated?

Heat is average kinetic energy of molecules. If a molecule has enough kinetic energy to overcome gravity and electrostatic attraction to the other water molecules it will leave the mass of water and fly freely about in the air.

Now we have the problem of explaining kinetic energy, gravity , and electrostatic attraction.

At some point we will either be talking in terms of phenomena that cannot be explained in terms of anything more basic because there is nothing more basic or we will simply not know what it is that is more basic.

How will we know the difference between a truly fundamental phenomena and one which we simply cannot explain yet? I understand that G.R. and Q.M. are at odds with one another and so 1 or both must be in error and so we know that there is something more fundamental then the understanding we now have but once we find a self consistent theory how will we know if we are done and know everything there is to know about physics or if there is some deeper explanation for why things are the way they are?