just as the title says, how is 4s ionised first if 3d is higher in energy? also, how does argon have a full outershell if its 3d is empty?
While the 4s orbital is indeed lower in energy than the 3d orbital, it is also more accessible for ionization. This is because the 4s orbital has a higher probability of being closer to the nucleus, making it easier for an electron to overcome the attractive force of the nucleus and become ionized.
The energy levels of orbitals are determined by their distance from the nucleus and the number of nodes (points where the probability of finding an electron is zero). The 3d orbital has a higher number of nodes, making it farther from the nucleus and therefore higher in energy compared to the 4s orbital.
Yes, the order of orbital energy levels can vary for different elements. This is because the number of protons in the nucleus affects the strength of the attractive force and can alter the energy levels of the orbitals. However, the general trend of increasing energy from s to p to d to f orbitals remains the same.
To ionize an electron in the 4s orbital, energy must be supplied to the atom. This energy can come in the form of heat, light, or an electric current. When the electron is provided with enough energy, it can overcome the attractive force of the nucleus and become ionized, leaving behind a positively charged ion.
Yes, the 3d orbital can be ionized, but it requires a higher amount of energy compared to the 4s orbital. This is because the 3d orbital is farther from the nucleus and has a higher number of nodes, making it more stable and less likely to be ionized. However, in certain situations, such as extreme temperatures or pressures, the 3d orbital can also be ionized.