# If 3d is higher in energy than 4S, how is 4s ionised first?

• KingCrimson

#### KingCrimson

just as the title says, how is 4s ionised first if 3d is higher in energy? also, how does argon have a full outershell if its 3d is empty?

Ionized first by which process? You can kick out every electron with sufficient energy. In addition, removing an electron will shift the energy levels for the other electrons.

"Full" in the context of noble gases refers to the s and p orbitals.

## 1. How can the 4s orbital be ionized first if it is lower in energy than the 3d orbital?

While the 4s orbital is indeed lower in energy than the 3d orbital, it is also more accessible for ionization. This is because the 4s orbital has a higher probability of being closer to the nucleus, making it easier for an electron to overcome the attractive force of the nucleus and become ionized.

## 2. Why is the 3d orbital considered to be higher in energy than the 4s orbital?

The energy levels of orbitals are determined by their distance from the nucleus and the number of nodes (points where the probability of finding an electron is zero). The 3d orbital has a higher number of nodes, making it farther from the nucleus and therefore higher in energy compared to the 4s orbital.

## 3. Does the order of orbital energy levels change for different elements?

Yes, the order of orbital energy levels can vary for different elements. This is because the number of protons in the nucleus affects the strength of the attractive force and can alter the energy levels of the orbitals. However, the general trend of increasing energy from s to p to d to f orbitals remains the same.

## 4. How does the ionization process work in the 4s orbital?

To ionize an electron in the 4s orbital, energy must be supplied to the atom. This energy can come in the form of heat, light, or an electric current. When the electron is provided with enough energy, it can overcome the attractive force of the nucleus and become ionized, leaving behind a positively charged ion.

## 5. Can the 3d orbital be ionized at all?

Yes, the 3d orbital can be ionized, but it requires a higher amount of energy compared to the 4s orbital. This is because the 3d orbital is farther from the nucleus and has a higher number of nodes, making it more stable and less likely to be ionized. However, in certain situations, such as extreme temperatures or pressures, the 3d orbital can also be ionized.