to preserve commutation relations in the quantized field operators (basically simple harmonic oscillator raising/lowering operators), a vacuum mode must be introduced in the case of a usual 50-50 beam splitter.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

thus, one has 4 modes:

- vacuum
- incident mode
- reflected mode
- transmited mode

how does one interpret the vacuum mode interacting with the real photon modes? does this mean that empty space always interacts with matter... so that it is inherently impossible for schrodinger's cat to stay in a superposition of states (and thus things are determinate).

there is also a multiverse view presented by Deutsch in his book The Fabric of Reality. does the vacuum state correspond to his "shadow photon"? (or rather, is it the signal-sender between shadow/real photons?)

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# Interpretation of vacuum fluctuation

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