I don't know much about biology, my background is in maths and physics. Hopefully someone else here knows it better than me. Anyway, I was wondering if evolution would go the same way if it were repeated again with the same (or very nearly the same) initial conditions. I'm not sure how much evolution has been studied in the context of dynamical systems, but I can imagine many points of (quasi) stable equilibrium which life could have settled into, meaning it would be different every time. On the other hand, I've heard that the human type of eye is known to have evolved independently several times, which might imply that we would get basically the same life arising given the same initial conditions. Does anyone know about this? Is it an open question or has it been answered? Thanks.