1. What do we mean by the carrier number at transparency. I mean, what is carrier transparency of a laser?(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

2. in an IEEE paper ("Circuit Modeling of Quantum-Well Lasers for Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits (ICs) Including Physical Effect of Deep-Level Traps" IEEE J. Quantum electronics, vol. 38, No. 11, November 2002 ) by Mohammad reza Salehi,

he introduced an equation,

Gamma = 0.3 * N' * (d/d0)

where Gamma is the optical Confinement Factor, N' is the number of quantum wells of the laser and d is the thickness of a single quantum well. He said, d0=1000A(angstrom). Now my question is, Where does this d0 come from and why did they mentioned that its value is 1000. I looked at the reference of this paper, they did the same. the didn't mention this either that what is d0.

thank you

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# Laser question (Confinement factor and quantum well thickness)

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