# Limits of Partial Charges in Dipoles

• tbn032
In summary, the content discusses the concept of partial charges at the ends of a dipole, which are always less than the unit electronic charge. It further explores the possibility of exceeding this charge in double or triple bonds due to electronegative atoms pulling the shared electron cloud, but concludes that this is not possible due to the limitations of electronegativity. The conversation also mentions the term "zwitterion" as a related topic.
tbn032
In my book it is written "Ends of dipole possesses partial charges. Partial charges are always less than the unit electronic charge (1.6×10−19 C)".
Suppose in a double bond(two electron is shared by each atom) or triple bond(three electrons are shared by each atom), can the electronegative atom pull the shared electron cloud to the extent that the charges at the end of the dipole exceed 1.6×10−19 C.why is that not possible? Is it because the anions are not electronegative to that extent, hence they cannot pull the electron cloud to the extent that the charges at the end of the dipole exceed 1.6×10−19 C?

## 1. What are partial charges in dipoles?

Partial charges in dipoles refer to the unequal distribution of electric charge within a molecule or compound. This means that one end of the molecule has a slightly positive charge and the other end has a slightly negative charge, resulting in an overall dipole moment.

## 2. How are partial charges measured?

Partial charges are measured using a unit called the Debye (D), with one Debye equal to 3.34 x 10^-30 coulomb-meters. This unit is used to quantify the strength of the dipole moment in a molecule or compound.

## 3. What factors affect the magnitude of partial charges in dipoles?

The magnitude of partial charges in dipoles is affected by the electronegativity difference between atoms in a molecule, the molecular geometry, and the presence of polar bonds. The greater the electronegativity difference, the larger the partial charges will be. Additionally, a more asymmetrical molecular shape and the presence of polar bonds will also result in larger partial charges.

## 4. What are the limitations of partial charges in dipoles?

One limitation of partial charges in dipoles is that they are an approximation and do not fully capture the complexity of electron distribution within a molecule. Additionally, they do not account for the movement of electrons, which can change the partial charges over time. Furthermore, partial charges do not take into account the effects of neighboring molecules or ions on the dipole moment.

## 5. How do partial charges in dipoles affect the physical and chemical properties of a molecule?

The presence of partial charges in dipoles can affect the solubility, boiling point, and reactivity of a molecule. Molecules with larger dipole moments tend to have stronger intermolecular forces, making them more likely to dissolve in polar solvents. They also have higher boiling points due to the increased energy needed to overcome these intermolecular forces. The partial charges in dipoles can also influence the reactivity of a molecule, as they can attract or repel other charged species in a chemical reaction.

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