In "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen & Chuang, on pp. 88-89, applying basic statistical definitions to operators, one of the intermediary steps uses the expression M-<M> where M is a Hermitian operator, and <M> is the expected value = <ψ|M|ψ> for a given vector ψ (that is, when one is testing for |ψ>.) What I do not understand is how one can subtract a vector from an operator. That is, <ψ|M|ψ> is a vector, and M is an operator. For example, if one took an example of M as a 2x2 matrix and ψ as a 1x2 vector, then <ψ|M|ψ> is a 1x2 vector, and then M-<M> has a mismatch in dimensions. What am I wrongly interpreting? Thanks.