# Number of ionizations by heavy ion beam

• ORF
In summary, the question is about the number of ion-pairs produced by a heavy ion beam depositing energy E in a volume V. The answer is that it will be the energy divided by the average energy of ionization, although there may also be atomic excitations without ionizations. The fraction of excitations depends on the target, beam type, and energy. Programs like Geant 4 and SRIM can simulate this process. For water and the Bragg peak specifically, SRIM may be easier to use.
ORF
Hello

If a heavy ion beam deposits a certain energy E in a volume V, how many ion-pairs will it produce in matter?

I think that the number of ion-pairs will be the energy divided by the (average) energy of ionization. A friend told me that a part of the deposited energy will cause also atomic excitations without ionizations, but we don’t know the fraction of energy for each process. I suppose that the fraction of excitations will be negligible compared to ionizations, but I’m not sure of that.

Thank for your time (with a reference to a book will be enough).

Greetings!

The fraction will depend on the target, the beam type and beam energy. You also get phonons and lattice displacements. There are programs that can simulate it.

Hello

I'm interested in the case of matter=liquid water and E=Bragg's peak.

On the other hand, you have aroused my curiosity: how can I find that programs?

Greetings!

Geant 4 is standard in high-energy physics, but I guess it works well for the Bragg peak, too.

No lattice displacements for liquids of course.

TRIM/SRIM will work well for this problem too, and is a little easier/quicker to run than Geant 4 for this kind of simple problem. http://www.srim.org/
Don't let the terrible website fool you, it's good stuff, and is pretty standard in medium/lowish energy beam physics.

Hello

I've taken a look to Geant4 and SRIM, and SRIM seems easier :)

Greetings!

## 1. What is the process of ionization by a heavy ion beam?

Ionization by a heavy ion beam refers to the process of removing electrons from atoms or molecules using high-energy, charged particles known as heavy ions. When a heavy ion beam passes through a material, it collides with the atoms or molecules, transferring energy and causing them to lose one or more of their electrons. This results in the formation of positively charged ions.

## 2. What is the significance of the number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam?

The number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam is important in understanding the effects of radiation on a material or living organism. It determines the amount of energy deposited in the material and the potential damage that can occur. The more ionizations that occur, the greater the potential for damage.

## 3. How is the number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam measured?

The number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam can be measured using a variety of techniques, such as ionization chambers or semiconductor detectors. These devices measure the electrical charge generated by the ionizations and can provide information about the energy and number of ions present in the beam.

## 4. What factors can affect the number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam?

The number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam can be affected by several factors, including the energy and charge of the ions in the beam, the type of material the beam is passing through, and the density and thickness of the material. Additionally, factors such as temperature, pressure, and the presence of electric or magnetic fields can also influence the number of ionizations.

## 5. How is the number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam used in research and applications?

The number of ionizations by a heavy ion beam is used in a variety of research fields, including nuclear physics, material science, and medical research. It is also used in applications such as cancer therapy, where the precise number and energy of ionizations can be controlled to target and destroy cancer cells. Additionally, understanding the number of ionizations can aid in the development of more efficient and effective radiation shielding for space exploration and other high-radiation environments.

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