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## Main Question or Discussion Point

In quantum mechanics, we have the partition function Z[j] = e

## \frac{\delta}{\delta j_1}\frac{\delta}{\delta j_2} Z = \langle O_1 O_2 \rangle##

The S in the path integral has been replaced by S → S + j

## \langle E \rangle = \frac{\partial Z}{\partial \beta} ##

When you add heat to a gas at constant pressure, the change in the enthalpy H = U + PV is equal to the heat added. The gas has to expand to keep the pressure constant. The work PdV done by this expansion is automatically accounted for by the definition of H, which is analogous to the above formula for the transformation of S. What is the connection between these two types of partition functions?

^{-W[j]}= ∫ e^{iS+ jiOi}. The propagator between two points 1 and 2 can be calculated as## \frac{\delta}{\delta j_1}\frac{\delta}{\delta j_2} Z = \langle O_1 O_2 \rangle##

The S in the path integral has been replaced by S → S + j

_{i}O^{i}. Similarly we have what is also called the partition function in thermodynamics, Z[β] = e^{-F}= tr e^{-βH}, where F = E - TS is the free energy. The average energy can be calculated as## \langle E \rangle = \frac{\partial Z}{\partial \beta} ##

When you add heat to a gas at constant pressure, the change in the enthalpy H = U + PV is equal to the heat added. The gas has to expand to keep the pressure constant. The work PdV done by this expansion is automatically accounted for by the definition of H, which is analogous to the above formula for the transformation of S. What is the connection between these two types of partition functions?