What is Partition: Definition and 306 Discussions

The Partition of India was the division of British India into two independent Dominions: India and Pakistan. The two states have since gone through further reorganization: the Dominion of India is today the Republic of India (since 1950); while the Dominion of Pakistan was composed of what is known today as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (since 1956) and the People's Republic of Bangladesh (since 1971). The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and Punjab, based on district-wide non-Muslim or Muslim majorities. The partition also saw the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury. The partition was outlined in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, i.e. Crown rule in India. The two self-governing independent Dominions of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 15 August 1947.
The partition displaced between 10 and 20 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. There was large-scale violence, with estimates of the loss of life accompanying or preceding the partition disputed and varying between several hundred thousand and two million. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that affects their relationship to this day.
The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma (now Myanmar) and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from the administration of British India. The term also does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947—the Kingdom of Sikkim, Kingdom of Bhutan, Kingdom of Nepal, and the Maldives—were unaffected by the partition.Among princely states, the violence was often highly organised with the involvement or complicity of the rulers. It is believed that in the Sikh states (except for Jind and Kapurthala), the Maharajas were complicit in the ethnic cleansing of Muslims, while other Maharajas such as those of Patiala, Faridkot, and Bharatpur were heavily involved in ordering them. The ruler of Bharatpur, in particular, is said to have witnessed the ethnic cleansing of his population, especially at places such as Deeg.

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  1. S

    Number of ways to partition n persons and probability to form n groups

    1) At first my answer was ##n! \begin{pmatrix} n+r-1 \\ r - 1 \end{pmatrix} ## But I think that's not correct because let say first group consists of person A and B, by multiplying with n!, I also consider first group to be B and A which is just the same as A and B so there is double counting...
  2. E

    Details regarding the high temperature limit of the partition function

    My main question here is about how we actually justify, hopefully fairly rigorously, the steps leading towards converting the sum to an integral. My work is below: If we consider the canonical ensemble then, after tracing over the corresponding exponential we get: $$Z = \sum_{n=0}^\infty...
  3. H

    Partition function for a spin i

    ##Z = \sum_{-i}^{i} = e^{-E_n \beta}## ##Z = \sum_{0}^j e^{nh\beta} + \sum_{0}^j e^{-nh\beta}## Those sums are 2 finites geometric series ##Z = \frac{1- e^{h\beta(i+1)}}{1-e^{h\beta}} + \frac{1-e^{-h\beta(i+1)}}{1-e^{-h\beta}}## I don't think this is ring since from that I can't get 2 sinh...
  4. G

    I How Is the Partition Function of BaTiO3 Calculated in a Cubic Lattice?

    I have a cubic lattice, and I am trying to find the partition function and the expected value of the dipole moment. I represent the dipole moment as a unit vector pointing to one the 8 corners of the system. I know nothing about the average dipole moment , but I do know that the mean-field...
  5. LCSphysicist

    Partition function of modified Ising model

    $$H = - J ( \sum_{i = odd}) \sigma_i \sigma_{i+1} - \mu H ( \sum_{i} \sigma_i ) $$ So basically, my idea was to separate the particles in this way:: ##N_{\uparrow}## is the number of up spin particles ##N_{\downarrow}## "" down spin particles ##N_1## is the number of pairs of particles close...
  6. H

    I Partition function for continuous spectrum

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  7. Simobartz

    I Hamiltonian formalism and partition function

    In hamiltonian formalism we have the generalized coordinates ##q_i## and the conjugates moments ##p_i##. For a dipole in a give magnetic field ##B## the Hamiltonian is ##H=-\mu B cos \theta## where ##\theta## is the angle between ##\vec \mu## and ##\vec B##. Can i consider ##\theta## or ##cos...
  8. S

    I How Does Electron Spin Affect the Partition Function in Saha's Equation?

    Hey, I have a question about proving Saha's equation for ionizing hydrogen atoms. The formula is \frac{P_{p}}{P_{H}} = \frac{k_{B} T}{P_{e}} \left(\frac{2\pi m_{e} k_{B}T}{h^2} \right)^{\frac{3}{2}}e^{\frac{-I}{k_{B} T}} with P_{p} pressure proton's, P_{H} pressure hydrogen atoms, m_{e}...
  9. M

    Partition Function for system with 3 energy levels

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  10. M

    I Partition function of mixture of two gases

    I have a question about statistical physics. Suppose we have a closed container with two compartments, each with volume V , in thermal contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and we discuss the problem from the perspective of a canonic ensemble. At a certain moment the separating wall is...
  11. Dom Tesilbirth

    How to find the partition function of the 1D Ising model?

    Attempt at a solution: \begin{aligned}Z=\sum ^{N}_{r=0}C\left( N,r\right) e^{-\beta \left[ -NJ+2rJ\right] }\\ \Rightarrow Z=e^{\beta NJ}\sum ^{N}_{r=0}C\left( N,r\right) e^{-2\beta rJ}\end{aligned} Let ##e^{-2\beta J}=x##. Then ##e^{-2\beta rJ}=x^{r}##. \begin{aligned}\therefore Z=e^{\beta...
  12. burian

    I Entropy after removing partition separating gas into two compartments

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  13. anaisabel

    Grand partition function (Volume divided into N spaces)

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  14. Z

    Gaussian Distribution of Ideal Gas

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  15. Santiago24

    I Problems with understanding the role of the partition of unity

    I'm reading "Calculus on manifolds" by Spivak and i can't understand the role that the partition of unity play and why this properties are important , Spivak say: What is the purpose of the partition of unity? if someone can give me examples, bibliography or clear my doubt i'll appreciate it.
  16. mjmnr3

    Partition function of a particle with two harmonic oscillators

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  17. D

    Rotational partition function for CO2 molecule

    Hello fellow physicists, I need to calculate the rotational partition function for a CO2 molecule. I'm running into problems because I've found examples were they say this rotational partition function is: ##\zeta^r= \frac T {\sigma \theta_r} = \frac {2IkT} {\sigma \hbar^3}## Where...
  18. S

    Probability of a state given the partition function

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  19. Diracobama2181

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  20. LCSphysicist

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  21. T

    Exploring the Grand Partition Function for an Einstein Solid

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  22. SchroedingersLion

    A Lennard Jones, 3 particles, partition function

    Greetings, similar to my previous thread (https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/lennard-jones-potential-and-the-average-distance-between-two-particles.990055/#post-6355442), I am trying to calculate the average inter-particle distance of particles that interact via Lennard Jones potentials...
  23. PGaccount

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  24. snatchingthepi

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  25. P

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  26. A

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  27. R

    I An equivalence relation is a partition of A?

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  28. M

    MHB Show that the set is a partition of A

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  29. F

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  30. maajdl

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  31. BiGyElLoWhAt

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  32. W

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  33. M

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  34. W

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  35. T

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  36. L

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  37. S

    Canonical partition function of an ideal gas (unit analysis)

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  38. J

    Where can I find rotational/vibrational temperature data for ethane?

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  39. Mentz114

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  40. Philip Koeck

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  41. J

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  42. J

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  43. H

    I Help with a partition function calculation

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  44. H

    I Help with partition function calculation

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  45. D

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  46. T

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  47. FranciscoSili

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  48. srfriggen

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