# Penetration depth of a ion beam coupled with an EM wave

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• coquelicot
In summary, an ion source is a device that creates ion beams and projects them outside the device. When the ion beam is coupled with a microwave EM wave and irradiates a material, the ions will oscillate at the frequency of the wave and their penetration depth will depend on their velocity and the frequency of the wave. The main energy loss mechanism for charged particles in matter is ionization, but there is not expected to be much influence on particle energy loss from microwaves. The Bethe-Bloch formula is a good starting point for understanding the relationship between energy loss and penetration depth.
coquelicot
TL;DR Summary
How does the penetration depth of a ion beam coupled with a EM microwave depend upon the frequency of the wave?
A Ion source is a device that allows creating ion beams (e.g. argon ions) and to project them outside the device, for example to be further processed by a particle accelerator, or to irradiate materials or biological tissues etc.
Now, suppose the ion beam is coupled with an EM wave, especially of microwave frequency, and irradiates a given material.
Said very simplistically, the ions will oscillate at the frequency of the wave as they penetrate the irradiated material.
Then it is natural to suspect that the penetration depth of the ions depends not only upon their velocity, but also upon the frequency of the carrying wave.
Is there something known about that? what work has been done in this domain? any reference?

The main energy loss mechanism for charged particles in matter is ionization of the matter. There are energy loss tables I used in the distant pass to compute charge particle energy loss in things like thin metal films etc. That said, I'd expect near to no influence on particle energy loss by any microwaves unless the microwaves themselves could ionize the mater. That's a lot of microwaves.

mfb, coquelicot and vanhees71
Paul Colby said:
The main energy loss mechanism for charged particles in matter is ionization of the matter. There are energy loss tables I used in the distant pass to compute charge particle energy loss in things like thin metal films etc. That said, I'd expect near to no influence on particle energy loss by any microwaves unless the microwaves themselves could ionize the mater. That's a lot of microwaves.
Thx for answering me. How is the energy loss related to the penetration depth (a formula? or a name for a formula in order I can google it?).

Bethe-Bloch, should give you a good start

mfb and coquelicot

## 1. What is the definition of penetration depth?

The penetration depth is the distance that an ion beam can travel through a material before it loses a significant amount of its energy. It is typically measured in nanometers (nm) and is dependent on the properties of the material and the energy of the ion beam.

## 2. How does an EM wave affect the penetration depth of an ion beam?

An EM wave can affect the penetration depth of an ion beam by altering the energy and trajectory of the ions. The interaction between the EM wave and the ions can cause them to scatter or be deflected, resulting in a shorter penetration depth.

## 3. What factors influence the penetration depth of an ion beam coupled with an EM wave?

The penetration depth of an ion beam coupled with an EM wave is influenced by the energy and type of ions, the properties of the material being penetrated, the frequency and intensity of the EM wave, and the angle of incidence of the ion beam.

## 4. How can the penetration depth of an ion beam be controlled?

The penetration depth of an ion beam can be controlled by adjusting the energy and type of ions, as well as the properties of the material being penetrated. Additionally, the frequency and intensity of the EM wave can also be manipulated to alter the penetration depth.

## 5. What are the applications of studying the penetration depth of an ion beam coupled with an EM wave?

Studying the penetration depth of an ion beam coupled with an EM wave has various applications, such as in materials science, where it can be used to analyze the composition and structure of materials. It is also important in fields like nuclear physics and medical imaging, where ion beams are used for detection and treatment purposes.

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