What is Em: Definition and 1000 Discussions

An em is a unit in the field of typography, equal to the currently specified point size. For example, one em in a 16-point typeface is 16 points. Therefore, this unit is the same for all typefaces at a given point size.The em dash — and em space   are each one em wide.
Typographic measurements using this unit are frequently expressed in decimal notation (e.g., 0.7 em) or as fractions of 100 or 1000 (e.g., 70/100 em or 700/1000 em). The name em was originally a reference to the width of the capital M in the typeface and size being used, which was often the same as the point size.

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  1. RobbyQ

    I Electromagnetic Absorption in the Ocean

    The recent rescue operation of a sub in the ocean made me wonder how difficult it is to communicate with underwater vessels. Is it that all parts of the EM spectrum gets absorbed at extreme depths that things like GPS is not possible. I wondered what wavelengths of the spectrum were absorbed...
  2. LarryS

    I Transmission Line EM Wave vs EM Wave in Free Space

    According to Maxwell’s Equations, the speed an EM plane wave in free space, far from its source, is determined by the electric constant, ε0, and the magnetic constant, μ0, such that c = 1/√( ε0 μ0). The units of ε0 are capacitance per unit length and the units of μ0 are inductance per unit...
  3. W

    B Interpreting light as Maxwell's EM wave

    Sometimes I cannot imagine light as the popular Maxwell's blue and red electric and magnetic wave https://simply.science/images/content/physics/Electromagnetism/em_waves/emv.jpg but I found the image below to be the more accurate representation of how light actually looks like as waves...
  4. N

    B Exploring the Intersection of Oscillations/Waves & Particles in EM Fields

    For an upcoming presentation I am looking for a topic which covers both the field of oscillations/waves and particles in electromagnetic fields. Do you have any interesting ideas for a possible topic? Many thanks for your help in advance!
  5. J

    I Interaction of EM radiation with Glass

    Hi, I wanted some clarification on the mechanism for how EM radiation interacts with standard glass, namely IR, visible and high energy (UV and X-ray). Looking online most sources seem to say the band gap is around 10eV. Since visible light is about 1-3eV visible light will be transmitted. IR...
  6. Hallucinogen

    I Understanding Physical Processes: EM, Gravitational, Mechanical & Entropic

    Hi, I'm putting together some resources about theories and would like some help to make sure I don't make a mistake. In particular, I'd like to know if each of the electromagnetic, gravitational, mechanical and entropic processes applies to every physical process. So, for example, due to an...
  7. Leureka

    I How does EM wave geometrical attenuation affect atomic absorption?

    Let's say we have a point source of an EM wave in a vacuum of total energy E, and an absorber atom at some distance from this source, whose first excited state is at the energy B, with B < or = E. The energy of the wave is constant as a whole, but at each point around the source the energy...
  8. E

    I Meaning of "Static Electricity" and Physical Interpretation

    If a balloon and a sweater are rubbed together, high-school science teachers like to say "the electrons transferred to the balloon in the form of static electricity." Then, it is often charming to show that two such balloons repel one another "because they have more electrons." Can we unpack...
  9. G

    I Are EM signals also analytical backwards in time?

    Hi. If I turn on an antenna, it starts sending out radiation. If I turn it off again, the radiation doesn't instantly disappear but dies out smoothly (exponentially?). But this also means the radiation is never completely gone. This looks time-asymmetric, which is weird for electrodynamics. It...
  10. LarryS

    I EM Four-Potential and INDUCED Electric Fields

    Say we have a long solenoid with a current that is fluctuating in time. Then the changing magnetic flux in the solenoid will induce an electric field around the outside of the solenoid (Faraday's Law). This induced electric field is not conservative and therefore cannot have a corresponding...
  11. A

    I Destat Apparatus - Exploring The Physics Behind It

    I hope you all have a wonderful day, Some time ago, I bought a device that is supposed to eliminate static charge on my vinyl records (which aids to the overall sound quality). I was sitting on the couch and having a deep thought, as me myself have no professional background in physics, I...
  12. C

    A Penetration depth of a ion beam coupled with an EM wave

    A Ion source is a device that allows creating ion beams (e.g. argon ions) and to project them outside the device, for example to be further processed by a particle accelerator, or to irradiate materials or biological tissues etc. Now, suppose the ion beam is coupled with an EM wave, especially...
  13. Salmone

    I How an induced electric dipole vibrates with EM field

    If we have an electromagnetic wave like the one in the picture and a molecule which is, in the image, the small black ball with electron cloud being the part with "minus sign" in it, does the molecule with its cloud start to oscillate, once the EM wave hits it, as an induced electric dipole...
  14. warhammer

    Chapter 2 Griffiths EM Problem: E-Field from a charged ring

    Hi. I have solved the problem below as shown in the attached image. However I'm at a loss to figure out where I am making a mistake, and I know it is indeed a big goof up. Requesting guidance over identification and rectification of this big goof up. (Edit- I can solve this problem in the...
  15. Salmone

    I Two molecules with different polarizability in an EM field

    If I have two separated and non-interacting molecules with different constants polarizabilities ##\alpha_1## and ##\alpha_2## and I send an EM field of frequency ##\omega## first on the molecule no.##1## and then on the molecule no.##2## so that the two molecules will have a dipole moment...
  16. T

    I EM wave propagation: respective phase of E and M field

    Hi alltogether, I have been confused about a certain topic of EM wave propagation: it´s clear to me that E and M field are perpendicular to each other (I know Maxwell´s equations well). But: sometimes you can find on the internet that both fields are in phase...
  17. Delta2

    B EM waves in vacuum analogy

    So, is water for water waves, what is the vacuum for EM waves traveling in vacuum. I know the analogy can't be exactly perfect because water molecules oscillate in the presence of water waves, but in vacuum nothing seems to oscillate? Or the vacuum oscillates in some way? And no I am not trying...
  18. G

    I Solving the EM field equations to produce the desired vector field

    So, we have A, the magnetic vector potential, and its divergence is the Lorenz gauge condition. I want to solve for the two vector fields of F and G, and I'm wondering how I should begin##\nabla \cdot \mathbf{F}=-\nabla \cdot\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\mathbf{A} =-\frac{\partial}{\partial...
  19. LarryS

    I Is E/B = c for spherical EM Wave in Vacuum?

    In classical EM, consider an EM plane wave traveling in free space. The ratio of the amplitude of the electric field to the amplitude of the magnetic field is the velocity of the wave, the speed of light. Is the above also true if the wave is spherical, expanding from a point source, as in a...
  20. DC2

    A Calculation of EM fields induced by an antenna in the near field

    The title pretty much covers it. I'm having to calculate the field induced inside the human body by an antenna in the near field (essentially, a phone placed close to a user's head), and I'm drawing a blank on how to relate the field generated by the antenna to the field induced inside the...
  21. wnvl2

    I Applying Reisenbach Transf. to EM Wave in Microwave Oven

    There is no possible measurement, no matter how clever, that can measure the one way speed of light. It is a synchronization convention. In this topic I would like to apply this idea on a specific case. I have a microwave oven with width L. In this oven I have a standing wave. $$E(t,x)=E...
  22. Maxicl14

    I EM equations - am I missing something?

    Summary:: There seems to be a mismatch, in the "Maxwell's" equations, between the number of equations and number of variables. I was trying to play around with the equations for Electromagnetism and noticed something unusual. When expanded, there are 8 equations, 6 unknown variables, and 4...
  23. I

    I Energy emitted by EM sources under constructive interference

    I'm trying to wrap my head around the energy increment under constructive interference. In short, why does energy increase quadratically when each source emit EM wave that interferes constructively? Suppose we have an array of identical and equidistant sources, each of which span the entire x-y...
  24. BranRubaba

    I EM waves have no mass but they do have momentum?

    I was studying radiation and came across an article: https://www.wtamu.edu/~cbaird/sq/2014/04/01/light-has-no-mass-so-it-also-has-no-energy-according-to-einstein-but-how-can-sunlight-warm-the-earth-without-energy/#:~:text=In summary, all objects with,not the only massless object. Which said...
  25. H

    I Linear EM wave transmitted

    Hi, I have an expression in my textbook that I don't really understand. I have 2 questions regarding this expression for a linear EM wave## \tilde{\vec{E_{0i}}} = (E_{0x} \hat{x} \pm E_{0y} \hat{y}) e^{i(kz- \omega t)}## ## \tilde{\vec{E_{0t}}} = (\sum_j E_{oij} e_{pj}) \hat{e_p} ## ##...
  26. Salmone

    I How to obtain Hamiltonian in a magnetic field from EM field?

    To calculate the Hamiltonian of a charged particle immersed in an electromagnetic field, one calculates the Lagrangian with Euler's equation obtaining ##L=\frac{1}{2}mv^2-e\phi+e\vec{v}\cdot\vec{A}## where ##\phi## is the scalar potential and ##\vec{A}## the vector potential, and then we go to...
  27. C

    A Electron EM Field as Local Gauge Variation of Electron Matter Field

    The EM field seems to be required for for local gauge symmetry of the electron matter field under local phase variation. Following is a description (not my verbiage): There is a symmetry in physics which we might call the Local Phase Symmetry in quantum mechanics. In this symmetry we change...
  28. Boltzman Oscillation

    I How does the magnetic component of an EM wave affect surroundings?

    Hi all, as we all know EM waves are made up of magnetic and electric waves in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Given this, why don't I see conductors being affected when I shine light at them? Woulnt the magnetism cause a force? Is is that the force is too small? What am i...
  29. D

    I Frequency of EM waves in classical and quantum physics

    in classical physics, when a charged particle oscillates, it emits an electromagnetic wave, and the frequency of the wave depends on the frequency with which the particle oscillates. But in quantum physics, when an excited atom emits a photon, the energy of the photon depends on the magnitude of...
  30. C

    I Equivalent formula for a Sound wave in a medium like an EM wave

    1.) In electromagnetics, wavelength in a medium is $$\lambda = \frac{\lambda_{0}}{n}$$, where $$n$$ is the refractive index. What is the equivalent formula for sound wave in a medium? 2.) Is there a reference sound velocity, like electromagetic wave speed in vacuum is $$c_{0} =...
  31. LCSphysicist

    Charge density seen from a moving reference frame S' (SR + EM)

    There are some question involving the statement. One of them is about the charge density in S' frame. It asks to calc it. I thought that i could calculate the electric field in the referencial frame S' and, then, use the formula $$ E = \lambda / 2 \pi \epsilon l $$ In that way, i would obtain...
  32. LarryS

    I Check out this YouTube video on EM waves in free space

    I've always had difficulty grasping why the electric and magnetic fields are in phase in EM waves in a vacuum. Of course, Maxwell's Equations imply that is the case, but I had a hard time intuitively visualizing it. Then I found this short video on YouTube. I would appreciate your opinion...
  33. F

    I EM Power transmitted from one region to another (normal incidence)

    High! I have a EM plane wave hitting normally a surface dividing universe in media 1 and 2, both without losses. So we have incident, reflected and transmitted waves. It's a simple exercise in which you are given the basic data about two media and wave incident amplitude H in medium 1. I get...
  34. Narayanan KR

    Interesting Links Between Faraday's EM Induction and EPR

    Imagine a magnet moving up and down so that its flux 'B' cuts the copper rod to produce an alternating emf, suppose if the movement is fast enough such that its frequency equals to the electron spin resonance frequency given by F = B x 2.8 Mhz per gauss, neglecting skin effect, more copper...
  35. F

    I Can a static EM field consist of photons?

    We can analysis a static EM field into Fourier serie. Then we can consider a static EM field as a superposition of many running EM wave. So why we could not consider static EM field as a superposition of many photons(maybe virtue photons)?
  36. P

    Analogy between EM wave reflection and S-parameters

    It is well known that one can solve incident an reflective wave in homogeneous linear media by matching PDE boundary conditions. In the electrical engineering community, one solves similar problem using smith chart and scattering parameters for 1-dimensional propapation of TEM modes in...
  37. F

    I Why we know average speed of single photon equal speed of EM wave?

    Why we know that average speed of a single photon(in point particle view) equal the speed of EM wave?If average speed of a single photon smaller than c then there exist massive photons?
  38. S

    EM stimulation and targeted fields?

    Summary:: I have an idea for a sci-fi story in which something like a headband or electrodes in the brain could be used for augmented reality. Could such devices work physically? This might be partially in the realm of neuroscience, but could a headband create a pinpointed magnetic field (in...
  39. J

    B EM Radiation Amplitude: Is Peak Related to Intensity?

    Electromagnetic radiation is propagating sinusoidal electric and magnetic fields. Are the peak amplitudes of these fields in any way related to the radiation's other parameters, e.g. its instensity?
  40. N

    B EM radiation creation within stars

    Having had a look at the following video of the dipole antenna and the creation of EM radiation, which I completely understand, I had a look at the link http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Astro/procyc.html#c1 and the hydrogen fusion process within a star. Looking at the process how do...
  41. P

    B Cryogenic storage dewars and EM waves

    I was researching cryogenic storage dewars and read that, "All dewars have walls constructed from two or more layers, with a high vacuum maintained between the layers. This provides very good thermal insulation between the interior and exterior of the dewar, which reduces the rate at which the...
  42. Leo Liu

    Why is this equation from Purcell's EM textbook correct?

    I saw the following equation on page 31 in Purcell's EM textbook. $$F=\epsilon_0\int_{E_1}^{E_2} E\, dE=\frac 2 {\epsilon_0} (E_2^2-E_1^2)$$ Here, F is the force on a unit area. And then he claims that since ##E_2-E_1=\sigma/\epsilon_0##, the equation can be further simplified to $$F=\frac 1...
  43. Frabjous

    Intro Physics Is there a freshman dedicated EM book other than Purcell?

    Is there a freshman dedicated EM book other than Purcell? I am not interested in the standard combo texts or Feynman.
  44. S

    Finding path difference of EM waves received by radio telecopes

    My attempt: I think ##x## is the path difference so by using trigonometry, I got ##x=d \sin \theta## But my teacher said the answer is ##d \cos \theta## What is my mistake? Thanks Edit: Sorry, I found my mistake. My ##x## is not the path difference
  45. yucheng

    Purcell EM Problem 1.2: Theory Behind Numerical Solution?

    The author start of with $\frac{1}{(y+\sqrt{3})^2} - 2 \cdot \frac{1}{1 + y^2} \left( \frac{y}{\sqrt{1+y^2}} \right) = 0$ and arrives at the equation $y = \frac{(1+y^2)^{3/2}}{2(y+\sqrt{3})^2}$ The solution is merely by iterating (use an initial guess value of y, calculate the RHS, then use this...
  46. LarryS

    EM Waves Generated by an LC Circuit?

    I am not an electrical or electronic engineer. I am trying to understand how a simple, series LC circuit running at it's resonant frequency can generate EM waves. I believe, based on what I have read, that the frequency of the generated EM waves will be the resonant frequency of the circuit...
  47. Johan L

    EM re-radiation from a metal object (antennas)

    Consider the following situation. Two identical monopole antennas are placed in a field with distance d. One of them is used to receive signals and the other is disconnected and can therefor be considered to be just a metal rod (my guess). A plane wave of a single frequency is coming from a...
  48. X

    EM wave/radiation from which equations?

    Hi there, in Feynmann's lectures, (Vol 2 eq (21.1) Heaviside-Feynman forumla) https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/II_21.html it is said that radiation comes from the last term, the one with acceleration in it. This formula is a particular case of the Jefimenko equations, the ones derived...
  49. A

    Photon-photon interaction, EM frequency overlap

    Now from physics I read that photons don't interact with one another normally, at higher energies they might through pair production but that is besides this point. So this means that for example if we have multiple sources of EM radiation like say multiple sub pixels within a screen then each...