As far as I can understand polarizing an object refers to putting an insulator in an electric field, such that the nucleus and electrons are pulled away from each other until they establish a field strong enough to prevent them from being pulled further apart. If this is correct, I would like to ask a few things about polarization that I don't quite understand: 1) When you pull an electron away from a nucleus doesn't the electrostatic interaction weaken between them? As such how can they establish this "equilibrium" (as my book calls it) where their attraction cancels the external which tries to rip the apart? 2) It is clear that a polarized object establishes a dipole, i.e. a field pointing in the same direction as the external field. But, why is this such an important thing to stipulate? After all every atom with a positive nucleus and negative electrons must at some point be a dipole, since it is not like the nucleus and electron have annihilated each other? What is so special about the proces where the material gets polarized (further) by an external field?