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$$y = ax + b + f(x)$$

and I can measure experimentally only x and y. I also know that ##f(x)<<ax,b##, where ##f(x)## is some non-linearity in x i.e. it can't be absorbed into the ##ax+b## part (for example ##f(x) = cx^2##), but I don't know its form. Is there a way to extract ##f(x)##, by measuring only ##x## and ##y##? I am basically wondering if I can quantify the deviation of the expression above from linearity and connect that to the value of x. Thank you!