Data are units of information, often numeric, that are collected through observation. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables about one or more persons or objects, while a datum (singular of data) is a single value of a single variable.Although the terms "data" and "information" are often used interchangeably, these terms have distinct meanings. In some popular publications, data are sometimes said to be transformed into information when they are viewed in context or in post-analysis. However, in academic treatments of the subject data are simply units of information. Data are used in scientific research, businesses management (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), finance, governance (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates), and in virtually every other form of human organizational activity (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).
Data are measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, and from data visualizations such as graphs, tables or images are produced. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing. Raw data ("unprocessed data") is a collection of numbers or characters before it has been "cleaned" and corrected by researchers. Raw data needs to be corrected to remove outliers or obvious instrument or data entry errors (e.g., a thermometer reading from an outdoor Arctic location recording a tropical temperature). Data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next stage. Field data is raw data that is collected in an uncontrolled "in situ" environment. Experimental data is data that is generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording.
Data has been described as the new oil of the digital economy.
Hi Everyone,
I'm working on a project where I have current values from three different devices when there is no arc and an arc generated by an arc generator. When I plot them, they all look different since the data is from different devices. Is there anything I can do to make them comparable...
Hi!
I would like to crowdsource where can I find a large tabulation of physical and chemical data (ie. density, enthalpy and entropy; for both single-phase and saturated phases) for different fluids; preferrably for alcohols and acids.
What I'm trying to look for is something similar to...
Who can I find that I can ask questions to regarding the topography of a region in the United States? I am particularly interested in if it is known what the land's shapes were prior to roads, buildings, etc?
Here’s the data is can supply.
Water temperature entering ~51°C.
desired water exit temperature ~38-40°C
Water flow ~approx. 300L/min.
Pipe Inside Dia.- 51mm
Pipe Material- HDPE PN16
We would bury the pipe around 1 meter deep. Deeper is not feasible as the trenches would be hand dug in an area...
Mike Lindell offered a 5 million $ challenge to anyone who could prove that his election data was false. A computer expert won an arbitration decision that he had proven it. He thought that it would take a long time, or be impossible, but he says that it did not take long at all. Does anyone...
For this data,
I am trying to find the overall absolute uncertainty of NA, where NA is the numerical aperture: ##\tan \theta_{NA} = \frac{R}{L}## and ##NA = \sin \theta_{NA}##
Case
R(cm)
L(cm)
R/L
theta_NA[rad]
NA
error in NA
R0,L0
0.5
0.5
1
0.785398163
0.707106781
0
Rmax,Lmax
0.7...
Do you know any such good resources? I want to improve my problem solving skills.
I also want to practice competitive programming, so any good courses for that?
I want to practice pointers any good courses for that?
I'm looking for a ballpark estimate of the number of astronomers who directly use raw James Webb Space Telescope data, in part, to be able to compare it to the number of scientists using data from other telescopes and scientific experiments.
I want to fine-tune the Pixel2Style2Pixel model with my custom data set, but I keep getting an error when I'm trying to load in the pre-train weights. Here is my code :
# Load the pre-trained model
os.chdir("/content/pixel2style2pixel")
from models.psp import pSp
config = {
"lr": 0.0001...
We have a collection of 8 discrete data points. They are:
10, 20, 30, 20, 30, 40, 30, 40
In increasing order:
10, 20*2, 30*3, 40*2
The harmonic mean of this data series is 22.86
I read on Wikipedia that the harmonic mean is skewed towards the smaller values i.e. smaller values will affect the...
Question: Suppose I have a data file for the acceleration of an object after every ##
\Delta t_i##, how do I obtain the displacement of it?
Context: Integral in a PID loop, although not exactly what I am asking as one is sum of error: $$\int_0^T \int_0^T \ddot {\vec \theta(t)}dtdt$$
the other...
I'm after some raw data for testing theories of dark matter in galaxies.
Basically what I want is table showing visible mass vs total mass within different radii (or, observed rotational velocity vs expected rotational velocity without dark matter). Plus error percentages. And ideally, for...
As of now, it appears the ΛCDM can accommodate this new data but new data is needed to be sure.
https://www.quantamagazine.org/standard-model-of-cosmology-survives-jwsts-surprising-finds-20230120/
I did a few experiments recently of impedance spectroscopy, and I've gathered some data that i'm having some issues to find an equivalent circuit that can fit the data.
The equivalent circuit that I've got, it's pretty similar with the data (graph and circuit below)
But the problem is, at low...
Hi
I need the below data for the thousand or so stars in M44 the Beehive Cluster. What would be the easiest way to get this data?
Thank you.
RA, Dec, distance, apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, spectrum
Say you have a large text file on your hard drive that you edit such that its content is fully erased and you save it that way. Then you delete the file. Is the content still on the hard drive?
Usually, deleting a file only deletes the address where the file is on the hard drive and the content...
TL;DR Summary: I am beginning research as an undergrad in Physics and have an example file I must analyze for the mean of each column. I cannot use arrays. I need to take the sum of a column of data.
Hi all, I am new to fortran and programming in general, but I'm having issues with creating a...
Along with a lot of other people, I chose to use Apple iCloud without thinking too much about what it can do for me.
iCloud offers Synching and I pay £6 pm for 2TB of storage. iCloud gives synching on your boot drive and you can only use the remaining space with zip files.
But is Synch actually...
Hey guys,
I got an XRD data for my sample and want to determine its density. This requires finding lattice parameters. However, I'm not certain about the crystallographic system of my sample. How can I determine the type of the unit cell my sample has from XRD data (I can use GSAS II if...
Hi 🙂
I'd appreciate your help.
I have a bunch of livestock with an ear sensor on each, that sends me data about how much heat is going out of the ear.
I wanna take this data from each livestock and smooth it.
My question is, how to know which smoothing algorithm I should use to get an...
I’m analysing the gravitational relationships between different mass astronomical bodies and am getting sick of having to individually google and document these.
Are there data sets out there that list pairs/sets of objects which includes their mass and distance from each other?
Including...
Hello everyone, I am trying to measure the dark count from a measurement a SPDC source. Although I collected data from the signal generator, I do not know how to obtain dark count rates per second.
I only know the following definition
Dark counts refer to the tiny amount of DC current in the...
In my late twenties, currently working as a data scientist in the UK, looking to sit A level maths, further maths and physics as a private candidate (not going through a distance learning provider) and pursue a joint degree in physics and computer science (which I know both St Andrews and...
Hi. I am writing a program in Mathematica that reads a xsl file from excel, then processes it by solving an equation, and lastly turns the processed data into a list for exporting.
Context: Finding the maximum speed of a model plane at different altitudes (density).
Screenshots of the code and...
Has it ever happened that after a discovery, data from previous experiments were analyzed and it was noticed that there was already some evidence of the phenomenon in question?
Is it a good or bad idea to mention that I am a full-time physics student while simultaneously a full-time data scientist employee while doing physics research too in my SOP for grad school?
Is it seen as too confident or bragging? Or it helps me to say this?
Does it make it sound bad if I...
A basic question. Looking at the NIST spectroscopic data, what exactly is, for example, Ar I vs Ar II vs Ar III? If Ar I is unionised Argon, then is Ar II an Ar- ion or an Ar+ ion? (and whichever way around it works, how do we denote the opposite ionisation? If they are all ionized, is there...
How do we know that cold neutrinos do not make up 100% or a large percentage of the dark matter content in the universe? In my mind, the only way to prove that dark matter is not simply cold neutrinos would be to measure the density of cold neutrinos in the universe and then calculate the...
I know data is decentralized in TFS. But how does that makes data sharing difficult?
We've got distributed computing for the similar purpose on different machines as well.
I read a lot on this but failed to find any information regarding why it was not possible to share data in TFS as compared...
I'm looking for a database of binary stars within 10 PC of Earth, including information such as eccentricity of orbits, their distance from one another, etc. I'm hoping to find a list with this information, or just a collection of pages with this information. I've tried Simbad but I can't find...
I've been looking this up and don't seem to have a great understanding.
Can someone confirm or correct that my understanding is accurate. Is a data center simply a large collection of individual servers?
If not, how do they differ? Thanks.
An answer posted here...
https://mathematica.stackexchange.com/questions/19859/plot-extract-data-to-a-file
... says you can extract the data from a Plot by doing this:
data = Cases[Plot[Sin@x, {x, 0, 2 Pi}], Line[data_] :> data, -4, 1][[1]];
Having looked at the doc page on Cases, I can't...
So I ran a python simulation of 1,000 games of toss (50/50 odds) where each game consists of 100,000 consecutive flips. The result was this:
1000 is our starting balance and as expected, there's a nice normal distribution around it. I also calculated the average value after all the games and it...
Hello! I have a function of the form:
$$y = ax + b + f(x)$$
and I can measure experimentally only x and y. I also know that ##f(x)<<ax,b##, where ##f(x)## is some non-linearity in x i.e. it can't be absorbed into the ##ax+b## part (for example ##f(x) = cx^2##), but I don't know its form. Is...
I'm looking to create a little webapp where the user can see the 3-D PVT phase diagram, giving the user functionality like orbiting the surface and moving a point along the surface. (I attached an image of the surface I'm referring to). To do that, though, I would need the data defining the PVT...
hello,
I’m trying to figure out if I’m doing this correctly or if there’s a different way that I should be finding a missing value. I’m trending data for an automatic transformer. Every month I collect the operations counter value and at the end of the year sum the number of tap changes...
First I'll give some context about how the book's written as many books are presenting it in different ways.
Reference: CRYPTOGRAPHY AND INFORMATION SECURITY, THIRD EDITION
By PACHGHARE, V. K.
Confusions:
1) Why is Expansion Permutation called so? The name sounds very contrary to what...
I'm running raw data and although, visually, the trends are promising, none of it is statistically significant. I was just going to leave it at that because the data was obtained after only 1 year of the experiment and I was just going to say that if treatment continued for a longer period of...
Hi PF!
The autocorrelation coefficient ##\rho## is defined as $$\rho_k \equiv \frac{\sum_{t=k+1}^T (x_t - \bar x)(x_{t-k} - \bar x)}{\sum_{t=1}^T(x_t-\bar x)^2}$$
Now suppose we calculate ##\rho## through ##T##, but are then given a new data at time ##T + \Delta t##. Is there a way to...
[Mentor Note -- PF thread and MHB threads merged together below due to MHB forum merger with PF]
I have to learn in context of lucene, but firstly, I want to learn the example indexing in general.
Sth like this-:
And I am not getting any google books and pdfs to learn about these topics. I...
I have a 3 data column ##(X, Y, Z)## ranges from ##(min, max)##. For example,
##X = (0, 5)##, ##Y=(0, 3)##, ##Z=(0, 2)##. By using them I need to create a numpy array in the form of
##[(0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (0, 0, 2), (0, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1), (0, 1, 2), (0, 2, 0)...]##
So in total there will be...
This video ...
... At around 01:26 they say that data to and from the Google apps server goes across unencrypted.
Is that true, given that all these services are necessarily over HTTPS ?
On a related note, does a VPN layer add any value in terms of data security, above that provided by HTTPS ?
Does anyone have a clue what the gold points and associated lines represent?
I notice that all the gold lines form closed loops (so they're not travel paths) and they cross themselves (so they're not contours).
I can't think of any type of data that would result in this.
I've tried to follow...
Hi PF!
I'm going through a backtracking tutorial here. That code runs well for me, and is below:
%% LOAD DATA
% Read a table of daily adjusted close prices for 2006 DJIA stocks.
T = readtable('dowPortfolio.xlsx');
% For readability, use only 15 of the 30 DJI component stocks.
assetSymbols =...
Hello! I have a super tricky problem for everyone I truly hope there is an answer to this.
I have different data sets all of which are a different amount of number per set (total points per set)
Each number is multiplied by 4.86 then rounded down. Then the total is added
Alternatively the sum...
The demo here doesn't specify how to download the file dowPortfolio.xlsx from the first line in the tutorial: T = readtable('dowPortfolio.xlsx');
Any help here (please tell me it's not just me)?
Nevermind, evidently you literally can just copy that line into the command window and MATLAB...