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I am, however, confused as I have seen some material which refers even the values taken by a random variable (or instances) as random variables. For example, consider the text from a PowerPoint presentation. The second part, for example, calls the members of a sample as independent variables.

How should I think about this?

Thanks.

**Text from a presentation**.

*“Suppose we are given a random variable X with some unknown probability distribution. We want to estimate the basic parameters of this distribution, like the expectation of X and the variance of X. The usual way to do this is to observe n*

“Let X1,X2,…,Xn be independent and identically distributed

__independent variables__all with the same distribution as X”“Let X1,X2,…,Xn be independent and identically distributed

__random variables__having c. d. f. F and expected value μ. Such a sequence of__random variables__is said to constitute a sample from the distribution F.”