# Radius of Convergence: Complex Series Need Not Be Defined Everywhere

• freddyfish
In summary, this contradiction arises from the fact that the derivative of a termwise differentiated series is not the same as the termwise differentiated complex series representation of the same derivative. If the derivative of the termwise differentiated series does not equal the termwise differentiated complex series representation, then the series is not defined at certain points along the negative real axis.
freddyfish
A complex series need not be defined for all z within the "circle of convergence"?

The (complex) radius of convergence represents the radius of the circle (centered at the center of the series) in which a complex series converges.

Also, a theorem states that a (termwise) differentiated series has the same radius of convergence as the original series.

Now, Ln z is obviously singular (at least) at the negative real axis which is a distance 1 away from the z0=-1 + i. But the Taylor series of Ln z centered at z0=-1 + i has a radius of convergence equal to 20.5. Thus, the derivative of Ln z is not defined on negative real axis, but according to the theorem it has radius of convergence R=20.5.

This implies that a series need not be defined everywhere a distance less than R from the center of the series.

However, the definition of convergence of a complex series is that that the limit of the partial sums converge to some finite value.

How can this contradiction be eliminated?

My own thoughts about this is that this contradiction would not rise from the above definitions and theorems if the derivative of Ln z does not equal the termwise differentiated complex series representation of Ln z. If this is the case, then why?

Thanks
//Freddy

The trouble logarithms have on the (by convention) negative real axis (apart from the origin) is not a pole, but a branch cut. The series expansions are perfectly well defined, but they will not reflect any branch cuts. For example a series centered at z0=-1 + i defines a function inside a circle of radius sqrt(2) centered at -1 + i but this function only agrees with the usual logarithm (having a branch cut on the negative real axis) up to the branch cut. The series will not have the discontinuity across the cut.
log(-1+0+i)-log(-1+0-i)=2 π i
while
f(-1+0+i)-f(-1+0-i)=0
If f is the series you describe

Last edited:

freddyfish said:
The (complex) radius of convergence represents the radius of the circle (centered at the center of the series) in which a complex series converges.

Also, a theorem states that a (termwise) differentiated series has the same radius of convergence as the original series.

Now, Ln z is obviously singular (at least) at the negative real axis which is a distance 1 away from the z0=-1 + i. But the Taylor series of Ln z centered at z0=-1 + i has a radius of convergence equal to 20.5. Thus, the derivative of Ln z is not defined on negative real axis, but according to the theorem it has radius of convergence R=20.5.

This implies that a series need not be defined everywhere a distance less than R from the center of the series.

However, the definition of convergence of a complex series is that that the limit of the partial sums converge to some finite value.

How can this contradiction be eliminated?

My own thoughts about this is that this contradiction would not rise from the above definitions and theorems if the derivative of Ln z does not equal the termwise differentiated complex series representation of Ln z. If this is the case, then why?

Thanks
//Freddy

You have a mis-understanding of branch-cuts. They're purely arbitrary and can be placed anywhere to isolate a single-valued component of a multi-valued function. That branch-cut along the negative real axis for the log function is just an arbritrary line of demarcation to isolate a convenient single-valued part of it. But Log is perfectally defined, continuous, and analytic there and in fact everywhere except the origin.

But a single-valued power series is convergent in a disc extending to the nearest singular point of the function. It's convergent for all points inside that disc. So I could just as well center a series for Log(z) at some point along the negative real axis and it will converge to Log(z) for every single point inside a disc the size of which is equal to the distance to the origin and what determination of Log(z) is used to construct the series will determine which single-valued branch of Log(z) the series converges to.

Thank you guys. That one I should have seen through! What a stupid mistake of me.

Anyway, thanks again :)

I would like to clarify that the radius of convergence is a mathematical concept that applies to power series, not just complex series. It represents the distance from the center of the series within which the series converges. The theorem mentioned in the content is correct, but it only applies to power series, not all complex series. Therefore, it is possible for a complex series to have a different radius of convergence than its termwise differentiated series.

Furthermore, the concept of convergence of a complex series is not dependent on the radius of convergence. As stated in the content, a series is considered to converge if the limit of its partial sums converges to a finite value. This means that even if a complex series has a finite radius of convergence, it may still converge outside of that radius.

The contradiction mentioned in the content arises because the differentiation theorem is being applied to a complex series, which may not necessarily be a power series. This means that the theorem does not necessarily apply and cannot be used to determine the radius of convergence for all complex series.

In conclusion, it is important to understand the limitations and specific applications of mathematical theorems and concepts in order to avoid contradictions and ensure accurate results.

## 1. What is the radius of convergence of a complex series?

The radius of convergence of a complex series is a measure of how far away from the center point the series can be evaluated and still converge. It is denoted by R and can be calculated using the ratio test.

## 2. Why do complex series need not be defined everywhere?

Complex series need not be defined everywhere because they may not converge at certain points, making the series undefined at those points. This is due to the fact that complex numbers have both real and imaginary components, which can lead to more complex behavior than real numbers.

## 3. How does the radius of convergence affect the convergence of a complex series?

The radius of convergence determines the set of complex numbers for which the series will converge. If a complex number is within the radius of convergence, the series will converge at that point. If it is outside the radius of convergence, the series will not converge at that point.

## 4. Can the radius of convergence be negative?

No, the radius of convergence cannot be negative. It is always a non-negative real number or infinity.

## 5. What is the relationship between the radius of convergence and the interval of convergence?

The interval of convergence is the set of all complex numbers for which the series will converge. The radius of convergence is the length of this interval, measured from the center point. The larger the radius of convergence, the larger the interval of convergence will be.

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