I'm currently researching into the formation and history of atomic clocks. Quartz and crystal clocks can determine resonance frequency measurements to an order of 10^8, but using Ramsey fringes this can become more accurate. Could someone help me explain why Ramsey fringes are a far more accurate means of determining resonance frequencies of a two level atom, than say a quartz clock? In particular, it would great if an answer aimed towards magnetic dipole theory or atom population was proposed.

This is my understanding so far, the frequency distribution of atomic resonance depends in the time between the two radiation pulses T.

df = 1/2dT

Is by decreasing the time between radiation pulses the only factor that makes Ramsey fringes a more accurate method of measuring resonance frequency?

Thanks for your time.