Two questions, underlined: I have read that the universe began with a singularity. Then space began expanding. How can space expanding affect a singularity? Has this conundrum been resolved? If time was speeding up, is would act the same as space expanding, but it would affect a singularity, bringing the temperature down. This would mean time pre-exists the universe. Many tests have concluded that space is not actually made out of "anything", so how can it expand? But time is unknown in the properties of its constituents, so may have a possibility of speeding up. In these two examples, time speeding up seems simpler, more elegant than space expanding. Is this correct? Or does it bring its own complications?