The expanding Earth or growing Earth hypothesis asserts that the position and relative movement of continents is at least partially due to the volume of Earth increasing. Conversely, geophysical global cooling was the hypothesis that various features could be explained by Earth contracting.
Although it was suggested historically, since the recognition of plate tectonics in the 1970s, scientific consensus has rejected any significant expansion or contraction of Earth.
Einstein's equations in general relativity indicate that the universe is expanding. Einstein himself believed that the universe should be stable so he introduced a correction to his equations which made for a static universe. He later admitted that was his biggest blunder. Hubble proved by...
In a spherical distribution of matter - such as with clusters of galaxies - how to calculate how much mass there should be for it to not expand with the expanding universe - in other word, for it to be a bound, static system?
(pop science) It seems like the mass in the universe at the point of origin was way higher and the size way smaller than required to form a black hole, so why didn't our universe just sit forever as a single black hole? From a figure for the mass of the universe you could calculate the event...
For part(b),
My solution is,
##\Delta E_{int} = Q - W = \frac{3}{2}(P_fV_f - P_iV_i)##
##Q = W + \frac{3}{2}(P_fV_f - P_iV_i)##
##Q = 4000 + \frac{3}{2}((1 \times 10^6)(6 \times 10^{-3}) - (3 \times 10^6)(2 \times 10^{-3})##
##Q = 4000 J##
However, according to the solution b. ##−4000 J##
Can...
There is no atmosphere pressure.
My work :
pA=k(x-x0) => pA=(k/A)(V-V0)
But this should be false beccause I want to use W=∫PdV to find work done by the gas but my final anwer is wrong ...
Please guide me where my mistake is if you have enough time. Thanks.
I would like to arrive at the following expression for the quantity ##o_{\ell}## ( with "DM" for Dark Matter ):
##o_{\ell}=b_{s p}^2 C_{\ell}^{D M}+B_{s p}##
with Poisson noise ##B_{s p}=\frac{1}{\bar{n}}(\bar{n}## being the average number of galaxies observed). the index "sp" is for spectro...
I was reading this paper (*Green's functions for gravitational waves in FRW spacetimes:* [https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9309025](https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9309025)) and I had a specific question about one statement in the paper that I would like to ask:
At page 6, the author says that...
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_death_of_the_universe
Is the heat death of the universe completely unavoidable in an universe with an accelerated expansion dominated by dark energy like ours?
Or can there be any way to avoid it according to current knowledge, observations and experiments...
There has been much discussion about how could we (theoretically) extract energy from the accelerated expansion of the universe.
However, the only gedankenexperiment I can found is the "tethered galaxies" one (e.g. https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0104349).
However, has somebody proposed an...
I found a paper (https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0411299.pdf) which talks about quantum systems emitting energy due to spacetime expansion. Is this true or only a hypothesis?
I was reading this interesting article [1] which talks about particle production in an expanding universe.
Usually this process is proposed to have occurred in the early universe, when the expansion was in the inflationary phase and it was so powerful that matter was created in particle...
Considering the FLWR metric in cartesian coordinates:
##ds^2=-dt^2+a^2(t)(dx^2+dy^2+dz^2)##
With ##a(t)=t##, the trace of the extrinsic curvature tensor is ##-3t##. But why is it negative if it's describing an expanding universe, not a contracting one?
Sean Carroll has an article (https://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2010/02/22/energy-is-not-conserved/) where he explains that matter can gain energy from spacetime expansion.
At the end of the article, he says: In general relativity spacetime can give energy to matter, or absorb it from...
Find question here and ms... In part ##i## we could just as well expand directly hence reason why i am sharing...
My direct expansion for part (i),
$$(4-x)^{-\frac{1}{2}} =4^{-\frac{1}{2}}+\frac{(\frac{-1}{2}⋅4^{-\frac{3}{2}}⋅-x)}{1!}+\frac...
I will summarize briefly my reasoning for both letters, since the answer is immediately after that:
A) The work is quasi-static, and the pressure is approximatelly constant and equal to the atmospheric pressure, so the works is $$W = -p\int dV = -p_{0} (V_{0}-V)$$
B) The work is fast, fast...
Global Newtonian mechanics seems to be compatible with
1) Hubble's law, and
2) the cosmological principle:
take a vector space, set the velocity of a galaxy at x to be v=x, where x is the position vector. Then from any galaxy, the other galaxies seem to go away with velocity v2-v1 = x2-x1. That...
Hi. I have watched some YouTube videos which suggest space (itself) is expanding. This sounds the same as the distance (itself) between moving objects is increasing. What's the difference? How can this even be proven in a laboratory? It doesn't sound as though it can be measured with a tape...
If particles are trapped in one half of a massless container by a barrier, and the barrier is removed so that the particles are allowed to expand to fill the whole container, it seems the center of mass would be displaced to the center of the container, whereas before it was located at the...
I attached a file which shows my attempt to resolve this problem with the possible two pair interaction which gives us the kinetic energy of the cluster in an expanding system, at least I think so. But to be honest I´m more or less completely stuck with this question and I would be glad if...
Using the generating function for the legendre polynomial: $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} P_{n}(x) t^{n}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-2 x t+t^{2}}} $$ It's possible to expand the coulomb potential in a basis of legendre polynomials (or even spherical harmonic ) like this: $$ \begin{aligned} &\frac{1}{\left.\mid...
The total amount of energy is still a conserved quantity, even in an expanding universe based on a positive and constant energy density, and even under the rapid exponential expansion during inflation, total amount of energy is conserved. For how this works, see this lecture by Alan Guth, the...
This scenario came up (as a dream) in a sci-fi novel (Robert J. Sawyer's The Terminal Man).
Two people
of height h,
initially within sight of each other,
at d distance apart ,
on a huge balloon of radius r.
As the balloon expands, they might or might not lose sight of each other over the...
An asteroid of mass M explodes into a spherical homogenous cloud in free space. Due to energy received by the explosion, the cloud expands and the expansion is spherically symmetric. At an instant, when the radius of the cloud is R, all of its particles on the surface are observed receding...
As we know universe is everything having every matter and energy. From the observation using Hubble's law it was said that the galaxies are moving away from the Earth which means the universe is expanding. If it is everything then what is it expanding into. Is there some outer edge that it can...
Please understand that I am a professional car detailer, not an astrophysicist. Hence the question. If space is expanding, and atoms contain space. Would that mean that the atoms themselves would also be expanding? Making not only the universe expand but also everything contained in the universe...
I noted that the number of carbons in the main chain is 7 (5 carcons and the outer two are attached to an outside 'CH3' grouping .. and the bonds are all single so we have a Heptane.
We have the main chain diagram structure as follows ..
-C-C-C-C-C-C-C- .. If we then number these carbons...
Can a simplified 2D model of our universe be an expanding ball? Where the surface of the ball is the 2D universe time is the vector normal of the ball measured in imaginary number i. So light will move at 45 degree to any vector normal. The expanding ball gets bigger because time is causing it...
Hi there,
I am currently doing an Ext Math 1 subject and haven't really come across any issues when needing to expand brackets, however, have come across the below equation I can't quite figure out... Any help would be greatly appreciated!
\( (p-q+r^2)(3-(p^2+q^2)) \)
The double brackets as...
How much energy is required to double the radius of a uniformly dense stellar object? Express the answer in terms of mass and the radius of the object.
I have one question I hope someone here can answer for me.
Relativity theory tells us that space and time are sort of the same thing, as a spacetime. So when space is expanding, what happens to time? I find it hard to believe that time is somehow unaffected by the expansion of space, so while...
Hello, I have been trying to solve the top line equation to get the result (the bottom line). I am searching for a clue (the steps) on how to obtain those four brackets as a result.
V = V(n,P)
PV = nc
dV = (-cn/P²)dP + (c/P)dn
dW = (cn/P)dP - (c)dn
This was how i tried to attack the problem, but it will end with log and probably it is wrong, any tips to fix it?
Hubbles law states the rate of recession of galaxies increases proportionally with distance, and the cosmological horizon is where distant galaxies recede away at the speed of light. Does this not violate the rule of faster than light speed travel?
I've been searching for weeks and still with the doubt.
I just know scientist look the content of the CMB and with general relativity calculates the expansion rate today that is 73 km/s/Mpc, but nowhere does it say how exactly. What does the contents of the universe have to do with the...
The expansion of the universe is accelerating. So the big rip is the best bet for how it ends isn't it? This fellow seems to think so:
I guess the heat death is not the most likely, unless new evidence shows otherwise.
I read somewhere that expanding universes create more energy as they expand, and I was thinking over time there would be a considerable amount of energy created due to this expansion. Even with a very small cosmological constant the energies created over time would probably dwarf anything that...
I am trying to derive the equation for a case, where we have a dust(zero-pressure) in an expanding universe.
There are 4 equations but I think exercising on one of them would be helpful for me.
I am trying to derive the equation for a case, where we have a dust(zero-pressure) in an expanding...
Hi,
I just need some (hopefully) quick calculus help.
I have the following:
##(y\frac {\partial } {\partial z}(z\frac{\partial f} {\partial x}))##
After it is expanded this is the solution:
##(yz\frac {\partial^2 f} {\partial z \partial x} + y\frac{\partial f} {\partial x} \frac{\partial z}...
As object separate with a receding velocity proportional to the distance, it would seem appropriate to think that objects and space itself, which are located at a distance sufficiently far away (and beyond) to were recession velocities are large enough that Lorentz length contraction effects...
Hello. If a closed ball is expanding in time would we say it's expanding or dilating in Riemannian geometry? better saying is I don't know which is which? and what is the function that explains the changes of coordinates of an arbitrary point on the sphere of the ball?
Hello. I am confused with this matter that how should we write the transformation matrix for an expanding space. consider a spacetime that is expading with a constant rate of a. now normally we scale the coordinates for expansion which makes the transformation matrix like this:
\begin{pmatrix}...
I am wondering why the two methods below give different answers. If I multiply z through the second bracket I get $$(\frac{d}{dx} +x)(-\frac{dz}{dx} + xz)$$which, on expansion, yields $$-\frac{d}{dx}\frac{dz}{dx} -x\frac{dz}{dx} + \frac{d(xz)}{dx} + x^{2}z = -\frac{d^{2}z}{dx^{2}} + x^{2}z +...
I understand that there are many forums and topics written on the fact that space is expanding. But I've looked and looked, and couldn't find an answer to my specific question.
How do we know space is expanding, rather than galaxies just regularly moving apart?
How do we know galaxies are...
Summary: Since L = T - V, and T equals the kinetic energy (KE) of a particle whose trajectory is to be calculated, how is KE defined since some of its motion will be due to the expanding universe?
My understanding may well be wrong, but it is the following.
if a particle is stationary at...
Hi,
I always used to struggle with the concept of "space itself expanding" (didn't Einstein say that the aether did not exist?) until one day an idea struck me that seemed to explain it all, without any need for complicated math. After talking about it with others, I got some great feedback...