1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I am working through a time independent perturbation problem and I am calculating the first order correction to the energy, and I am stuck operating the perturbation : v = i b (Exp[i g x]-Exp[-i g x]) on the ground state |0>. 2. Relevant equations <0| v |0> = 1st order correction 3. The attempt at a solution I need to be able to operate the exponential on the ground state. I did turn the exponentials in X into terms of creation and annilation operators.