What is Translation: Definition and 231 Discussions

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (which does not exist in every language) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or signed communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community.
A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More recently, the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localisation".

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  1. S

    How does academic transcripts translation work?

    How does academic transcripts translation work?
  2. S

    Translation and rotation of quadric surface

    I want to ask how ##Ax^2+By^2+Cz^2+Dxy+Eyz+Fxz+Gx+Hy+Iz+J=0## can be brought to ##Ax^2+By^2+Cz^2+J=0## or ##Ax^2+By^2+Iz=0## using translation and rotation. There is no explanation in the book. What kind of translation and rotation are needed? Thanks
  3. R

    B Define a vector that transfers the reference systems to the future

    Suppose a stationary reference frame, any other reference frame will have a clock that advances at t'= t/gand is moving away at velocity v. g is the relativistic factor. we can write: C d t' = Cdt/g and d x = v dt this can be written (Cdt',Cdx)=(C/g,C v) dt ; since 1/g2+ v2 =...
  4. Vick

    Fortran Can Fortran 77 Code Be Used to Debug Python Code for Solving ODEs Using Radau5?

    Hi, I have a piece of Fortran code but I'm not Fortran literate. I'm trying to translate it into Python. I have already made it, but I need someone who can run the Fortran code to compare the values of the variables.
  5. L

    Techno-scientific terms omitted from translation

    TL;DR Summary: Why were the two terms "visible light interference" and "the non-visible spectrum" omitted from the translation? I am doing a contrastive study of a Chinese sci-fi novel and its English translation. The following is a more faithful translation of the original: The initial...
  6. Frabjous

    Translation software use in threads

    Has there been any thought about a button for the poster to self-identify that the poster is using translation software? Edit: this is now a linguistics thread:frown:
  7. Spector989

    Conservation of momentum and mechanical energy on an inclined plane

    So i am tried to conserve momentum and use conservation of mechanical energy but won't there be psuedo force acting on the block if i am solving from non inertial frame ?. If i ignore the pseudo force and simply use C.O.M.E and include the K.E of the wedge and solve normally i do get the...
  8. B

    Python Pix2pix: Image-to-image translation with a conditional GAN

    So I am trying to do this tutorials but I want to use my own dataset. I am having problems "Build an input pipeline with tf.data." My question is about their code: def load_image_train(image_file): input_image, real_image = load(image_file) input_image, real_image =...
  9. F

    B English Translation of Italian Lecture Notes: Equations & Solutions

    Hi, I am looking at some lecture notes in Italian, and I'm wondering about the correct English translation for some terms. I am afraid that in some cases the "literal" translation would sound weird. I looked online but I still have some doubts. In some cases I was not able to find a satisfactory...
  10. chwala

    Find the translation and stretch from ##y=2^x## to ##y=2^{x+4}##

    For part (i) i was thinking of the vertical shift from ##(0,1)## to ##(0,16)##, this can be given by; ##y=2^x + 15## but it does not fit onto ##y=2^{x+4}## something wrong here. For part (ii), =we have a stretch factor of ##a=16>0## (vertical stretch) thus, ##y=16\cdot 2^x## your thoughts...i...
  11. vanhees71

    I Help with translation of terminology concerning the spinning top

    Has anybody a translation for the various cones describing the motion of the free symmetric top? The German expressions are "Nutationskegel" (space-fixed cone via the precession of the body-fixed symmetry axis ##\vec{e}_3'##) , and "Rastpolkegel" (space-fixed cone via the precession of the...
  12. jaumzaum

    I Hydrodynamics - Wave of Translation

    Hello guys! I am studying the hydrodynamics of a ship in shallow water. In deep water the ship creates 2 wave patterns, one transverse and another divergent, both making an angle of 19°28'. Also, the maximum velocity of a wave in shallow water is given by ##\sqrt{gh}## where h is the depth of...
  13. M

    Engineering Equation of motion for the translation of a single rod

    Hello, Given the statement a described above. To find the forces at point D I drawn a kinematic scheme and FBD of rod CD. But why am I allowed to ignore the mass of 50 kg, the forces at point B and point A? I know the are some rules about this, but I just can't remember them anymore.. The...
  14. J

    Foundations Klein's Encyclopedia: Is an English Translation Possible?

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klein%27s_Encyclopedia_of_Mathematical_Sciences Originals are in German or French, the Japanese version cut all the historical content :( Do you think that some day we will see this published in English? Size is big, 20k pages, but it cannot be more interesting I...
  15. M

    MHB The product γ is a rotation or a translation

    Hey! :giggle: For $p\in \mathbb{R}^2$ let $\delta_{p,\alpha}=\tau_p\circ \delta_{\alpha}\circ\tau_p^{-1}$. Let $p,q\in\mathbb{R}^2$ and $\alpha,\beta\in \mathbb{R}$. (a) Show that $\gamma=\delta_{p,\alpha}\circ\delta_{q,\beta}$ is a rotation of a translation (or both). Give the center of...
  16. warhammer

    Motion involving Translation & Rotation |Kleppner and Kolenkow

    My doubt is with Method 2 of the given example in KK. I'm unable to understand why the torque around A (where we have chosen a coordinate system at A) becomes zero due to the R x F in z direction with a minus sign {Photo Attached} I have tried to reason out that one way to formulate that term...
  17. W

    Comp Sci Keypad Translation Solution: Program for Correctly Mapping Keys to Letters

    Been trying to work this out for a while now but struggling to come up with a program that reads all of the samples. Based on the keypad, I should be receiving an "a" when I press "2" once. However, when I put in the code "222", I still get "a" instead of "c". I've attached the codes I put in...
  18. J

    Exploring Motion in Physics: Beyond Translation, Rotation, and Oscillation

    In high school I learned about three kinds of motion in classical mechanics - translation, rotation, and oscillation. Are there any other kinds of motion in the physical world?
  19. htam9876

    Lingusitics Foreign language translation help please, “have been around”

    I am a guy whose first language is not English. Sometimes I feel hard to understand what an English word means exactly even resorting to dictionary or machine. So, I start this thread to learn English. Any help will be appreciated. Liqiang Chen Sept 18, 2020 ……………………………….. Yesterday, I...
  20. Another

    I I don't understand about infinitesimal translation

    and But The infinitesimal translation denoted by equ 1.6.12 and 1.6.32 And then i understand about equation 1.6.35 but equation 1.6.36 Why they take limit N go to inf ? , multiply 1/ N ? and power N ? So is the relationship below still true? ## F(Δ x'\hat{x}) = 1 - \frac{i p_x \dot{} Δ...
  21. Borek

    English Honorifics (or smth) for translation of a story

    Oh, combined wisdom of PF-ers, I seek your help again (and probably not for the last time). We are working on a translation of a story into English. Thing takes place in Poland, now and then, and at some point our main hero meets a woman (named Miecia) that fourty years ago worked as a...
  22. Math Amateur

    I Translation Invariance of Outer Measure .... Axler, Result 2.7 ....

    I am reading Sheldon Axler's book: Measure, Integration & Real Analysis ... and I am focused on Chapter 2: Measures ... I need help with the proof of Result 2.7 ... Result 2.7 and its proof read as follows: In the above proof by Axler we read the following: " ... ... Thus ... ##\mid t +...
  23. Math Amateur

    MHB Translation Invariance of Outer Measure .... Axler, Result 2.7 ....

    I am reading Sheldon Axler's book: Measure, Integration & Real Analysis ... and I am focused on Chapter 2: Measures ... I need help with the proof of Result 2.7 ... Result 2.7 and its proof read as follows: In the above proof by Axler we read the following: " ... ... Thus ... $\mid t + A...
  24. J

    Wheel moving in rotation and translation

    Hi :) 1/ First case A wheel with a mass ##m## and a radius ##r## moves in horizontal translation and rotates around itself. The wheel is just above the ground, doesn't touch it. The wheel rotates CW if the wheel moves in translation to the right. The ground is horizontal and there is no...
  25. J

    Energy of translation compared to the energy of rotation

    I use an example with a rack and a pinion. I suppose there is no losses from friction. I suppose the masses very low to simplify the study, and there is no acceleration. I suppose the tooth of the pinion and the rack perfect, I mean there is no gap. There is always the contact between the rack...
  26. HaoBoJiang

    A LT & Translation Symmetry: Problem Analysis

    As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative motion, according to Lorentz transformation, we can get As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative motion, according to Lorentz transformation, we can get As we all know, for the reference frame S' and S of relative...
  27. S

    Is This the Funniest Translation Error on Amazon?

    https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CMZFRKW/?tag=pfamazon01-20 The first bullet point in the product description 🤣
  28. Adesh

    Can a magnetic field ever cause a translation motion?

    Lorentz Law says that for a charged particle moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field B then the force on it is given by $$ \mathbf{F} = q (\mathbf{v} \times \mathbf{B}) $$ Now, if I say that particle’s velocity and the magnetic field are aligned then according to Lorentz Law there will be...
  29. B

    Newton's Second Law for Translation and Rotation

    Answer choices: N2L for Translation, N2L for Rotation, Both, Either1. You are asked to find the angular acceleration of a low-friction pulley with a given force exerted on it. My solution = N2L for rotation 2. You are asked to find the angular acceleration of a low-friction pulley due to a...
  30. L

    A Doubts in a lattice translation example

    I have two question about a exemple given in the Sakurai's quantum mechanics book, section 4.3. Let's consider an electron in a periodic potential ##V(x + a) = V(x)##, that has the form of a wave. We will take the potential to go to infinity between two latteces sites, such that its form change...
  31. J

    Formulas for Rotation and Translation

    Given the coordinates ##P = (3,4)## , find the coordinates of ##P"(x',y')## when the origin is shifted to (1, –2), and the axes are rotated by 90° in the clockwise direction. I attempted to solve this problem using the following formulas : ##x = X + h## and ##y = Y + k## for translation of the...
  32. JD_PM

    I Nuclear physics exercises translation from Dutch to English

    Google translator does not really help me translating these exercises. May you help me out? If this is not the site I should I ask for translation of physics texts, may you tell me where should I ask for that?
  33. Borek

    Best Art Direction - translation?

    So it all starts with the fact that the game Return of the Obra Dinn (I love it, just in case you wonder) won Best Art Direction during The Game Awards 2018. We discussed it here with a friend of mine and turned out we understood the name of the category differently. In Polish direction and...
  34. J

    Maximum and minimum speeds in a moving cube

    Homework Statement A rigid cube in the figure moves in space. At a certain time ##t## its front face ##ABCD## is vertical and the velocity of vertex ##A## is vertical down ##v## while the velocity of its vertex ##D## makes an angle with the vertical and has magnitude ##v_{2}## while lying on...
  35. Bandersnatch

    Can Articles on Insights be Translated and Published Elsewhere with Attribution?

    1. If somebody wanted to translate one or some of the articles, would it be doable to include the translated text with the original Insight? 2. Alternatively, would publishing such a translation elsewhere (with full attribution of course) be o.k.? Questions mostly directed to @Greg Bernhardt...
  36. Igor Oliveira

    Describing the translation and rotation of a square frame

    Homework Statement Four equal discs of mass ocuppy the vertices of a square frame made by four rigid bars of length and negligible mass. The frame is at rest on a horizontal table, and it can move with negligible friction. An instantaneous impulse is transmitted to one of the masses, in the...
  37. T

    A simple case of translation invariance of Riemann integrals

    Homework Statement Show that \int_{A} 1 = \int_{T(A)} 1 given A is an arbitrary region in R^n (not necessarily a rectangle) and T is a translation in R^n. Homework Equations Normally we find Riemann integrals by creating a rectangle R that includes A and set the function to be zero when x...
  38. Joppy

    MHB Translation Surfaces: Geometric Definition & Billiard Systems

    In this Wiki article, a geometric definition of a translation surface is given. I'm lost in at the first line were it is stated that a given collection of polygons need not be convex. How is this possible? I am trying to understand translation surfaces from the perspective of dynamical...
  39. Adgorn

    I Understanding the Taylor Expansion of a Translated Function

    I recently found out the rule regarding the Taylor expansion of a translated function: ##f(x+h)=f(x)+f′(x)⋅h+\frac 1 2 h^ 2 \cdot f′′(x)+⋯+\frac 1 {n!}h^n \cdot f^n(x)+...## But why exactly is this the case? The normal Taylor expansion tells us that ##f(x)=f(a)+f'(a)(x-a)+\frac 1...
  40. I

    Common name translation and transcription molecules?

    The molecules that replicate DNA are collectively called "replisome". Is there a similar term for all the molecules that synthesize proteins (both through translation and transcription)? Short of, of course, "protein synthesizers". I can't seem to find the term, any feedback appreciated!
  41. K

    Relationship between translation and rotation

    Homework Statement Prove or disprove: Every translation is a product of two non-involutory rotations. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution :[/B] I am not sure if I got the right proof for the special situation: A translation is the product of two reflections with parallel reflections...
  42. T

    A Asking about lattice translation as a discrete symmetry

    I've read Modern Quantum Mechanics J.J. Sakurai 2nd Edition. In topic about lattice translation as a discrete sysmmetry(page 287) , they discuss only in case of ground state. If I want to study more in case of including excited states, where can I find this information? thanks.
  43. P

    Rotation vs Translation for elbow joint

    If I were to cut the string and let the board move, I know I would get rotation. But, since the center of mass of the beam is moving as well (in a circle) could I also say that the board is translating once the string is cut?
  44. binbagsss

    Modular forms, Hecke Operator, translation property

    Homework Statement I am trying to follow the attached solution to show that ##T_{p}f(\tau+1)=T_pf(\tau)## Where ##T_p f(\tau) p^{k-1} f(p\tau) + \frac{1}{p} \sum\limits^{p-1}_{j=0}f(\frac{\tau+j}{p})## Where ##M_k(\Gamma) ## denotes the space of modular forms of weight ##k## (So we know that...
  45. B

    Calculus Translation of a German book about ODEs

    I need a translation of "Differentialgleichungen : Losungsmethoden und Losugen", I guess it is written in German. This book was referenced in Shepley L. Ross' book on ODE. If the English translation is not unavailable, I am fine with a book that contains a "list" of special differential...
  46. Pushoam

    Difference between translation and uniform motion

    In https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilean_transformation it is shown that translation is different from uniform motion. So, isn't translational motion another name for uniform motion?
  47. T

    Quantum Good German textbooks with English translation

    I want to learn German to read those old classic papers written in German. I think the best way is to find a good, classic German book and compare it with its English translation. I believe in this way I can pick up German quickly. So, could anyone recommend some good German books in maths...
  48. binbagsss

    A Killing vector notation confusion time translation

    Okay so when there is time-translation symmetry because the metric components do not have any time- dependence, ##\partial_x^0## is a Killing vector. I'm just confused what this means explicitly, since a derivative doesn't make sense without acting on anything really? But by 'spotting the...
  49. R

    Why does translation work with the extra dimension (Homogeneous coordinates.)

    Homework Statement hi I have read a lot on homogenous coordinates and I feel like I now have a solid foundation. However none of the videos or books I have read give an explicit reason as to why translation with the extra dimension works(i.e. it does not result in scaling). Here 's what I...
  50. S

    A disk on a slippy surface (Rotation and Translation)

    Homework Statement There is a disk with mass 50 grams put on a slippy surface (no friction!). Its radius is 5 cm. Mass of the weight is 20 grams. At the beginning there is no motion. How far does the center of mass of the disk move in 10 seconds? (answer: 91 m) How many turns does the disk in...