Understanding Stable Particles: Neutrons, Electrons, Photons, and Neutrinos

In summary, physicists have been searching for proton decay since the 1980s, but have not found any evidence of it yet. This means that protons are considered stable. However, there is a possibility that there could be more particles at low energies, but they cannot interact strongly with ordinary matter. Recent experiments have set a lower limit for proton decay, which is close to a supersymmetry prediction and the age of the universe also suggests that protons are quite stable.
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How can be sure than the unique stable particles are the neutrons, the electrons, the photons and the neutrinos? Couln´t it be possible than at low energies were there more particles??
 
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  • #2
Protons are stable. Free neutrons are not.

There could be more particles, but they cannot interact strongly with ordinary matter, or we would have seen them by now.
 
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A 2014 result with 260kT·yr of data, searching for decay to K-mesons set a lower limit of 5.9 × 1033 yr,[5] close to a supersymmetry (SUSY) prediction of near 1034yr.[6]
And the universe is 13.8 x 109 yrs old so that's pretty stable.
 
  • #5
jerromyjon said:
A 2014 result with 260kT·yr of data, searching for decay to K-mesons set a lower limit of 5.9 × 1033 yr,[5] close to a supersymmetry (SUSY) prediction of near 1034yr.[6]
And the universe is 13.8 x 109 yrs old so that's pretty stable.
1033 and 1034 should be 1033 and 1034.
 
  • #6
mathman said:
1033 and 1034 should be 1033 and 1034.
Sorry, I copy and pasted from jtbell's link...
 

What are stable particles?

Stable particles are elementary particles that do not decay or change into other particles. They are characterized by having a long lifetime and a constant mass.

What are the differences between neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos?

Neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos are all stable particles, but they have different properties and roles in the universe. Neutrons and protons make up the nucleus of an atom, while electrons orbit around the nucleus. Photons are particles of light and carry energy, while neutrinos are neutral particles that interact weakly with matter.

How do neutrons, electrons, photons, and neutrinos contribute to the stability of matter?

Neutrons and protons provide the strong nuclear force that holds the nucleus together. Electrons provide the electromagnetic force that keeps atoms from collapsing. Photons carry the electromagnetic force and allow for energy transfer. Neutrinos play a role in nuclear reactions and have a stabilizing effect on the universe as a whole.

What are some applications of stable particles in everyday life?

Stable particles have numerous applications in everyday life. Electrons are used in electronics and power generation, while photons are utilized in lighting and communication technologies. Neutrons are used in nuclear power and medical imaging, and neutrinos are used in particle physics research and may have potential applications in communication and energy production.

Are there any ongoing research or developments in understanding stable particles?

Yes, scientists are constantly studying and researching stable particles to better understand their properties and interactions. This knowledge can lead to advancements in technology, energy production, and our understanding of the universe. Ongoing research includes studies on the nature of neutrinos, the properties of dark matter, and the behavior of particles at high energies.

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