Viruses in Vaccines that can mutate and spread

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In summary, according to the source, Polio type 2 viruses can mutate and spread, but it's rare. The main types of vaccines used today don't pose a higher risk of mutated viruses becoming airborne. Polio type 2 viruses can only spread in populations with low vaccination rates.
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new6ton
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Besides Polio. What other viruses in vaccine can mutate and spread?

The Polio type 2 wild viruses were supposed to be eradicated already.

http://polioeradication.org/news-post/global-eradication-of-wild-poliovirus-type-2-declared/
But recently. It's resurging. Is there possibility that mutated viruses from vaccine can become airborned?

What kind of viruses can become airborned? Why doesn't it happen to the HIV virus?

"Vaccine-derived polio happens when live strains of poliovirus that are used in the oral poliovirus vaccine mutate, spread and, in rare cases, trigger an outbreak. Most of the time the virus dies off but it can sometimes spread in an area where there is low vaccination coverage."
 
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  • #2
new6ton said:
Besides Polio. What other viruses in vaccine can mutate and spread?

The Polio type 2 wild viruses were supposed to be eradicated already.

http://polioeradication.org/news-post/global-eradication-of-wild-poliovirus-type-2-declared/
But recently. It's resurging. Is there possibility that mutated viruses from vaccine can become airborned?

What kind of viruses can become airborned? Why doesn't it happen to the HIV virus?

"Vaccine-derived polio happens when live strains of poliovirus that are used in the oral poliovirus vaccine mutate, spread and, in rare cases, trigger an outbreak. Most of the time the virus dies off but it can sometimes spread in an area where there is low vaccination coverage."
The quoted text is not in the link. What is the source?
 
  • #3
russ_watters said:
The quoted text is not in the link. What is the source?

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/09/19/health/philippines-polio-outbreak-intl/index.html
I'm tracking diseases around the world. Got interested in CDC after reading Hotzone about Ebola.

Can adult still get polio especially mutated ones that escaped from vaccines? I travel a lot to polio countries.
 
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There are four main types of vaccines in common use today: 1) live, attenuated vaccines (LAVs), 2) inactivated vaccines, 3) subunit vaccines, and 4) toxin vaccines. Only LAVs carry the rare risk of infecting the individual who receives the vaccine. Inactivated vaccines contain dead virus, subunit vaccines carry only small pieces of the virus, and toxin vaccines carry portions of molecules created by pathogens (such as the bacterial toxins that cause tetanus).

LAVs are created by manufacturing versions of the virus that contain mutations that should prevent the virus from replicating inside of the host. In rare instances, these mutations can revert to their original forms to produce a virus capable of replicating and causing disease. This occurs very rarely (e.g. the World Health Organization says that the oral polio vaccine causes polio in only 0.0002 – 0.0004% of cases; for every million people that are vaccinated, only 2-4 individuals will become infected).

LAVs are not more prone to other types of mutations than the normal virus, and would not have an increased risk acquiring mutations that confer new traits such as becomming airborne. In the case of a LAV becoming infectious, the mutations are restoring an ability to the virus that we knew the virus was already capable of performing. Mutations that confer new abilities to a virus (e.g. causing a non-airborne virus to become airborne) are observed very rarely. LAVs would be much less likely to contribute to the evolution of a new virus that viruses in the wild because: 1) the virus is incompetent for replication and already requires several mutations to become infectious again, so additional mutations on top of those would be even more rare, and 2) individuals infected with LAVs are presumably living under conditions where others around them are being vaccinated, so the virus would have difficulty finding unvaccinated hosts.

For more information about the different types of vaccines, see:
https://www.vaccines.gov/basics/types
 
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In vaccination campaigns there are quite a few advantages to using the live vaccine, it provides a far more effective immune response, particularly in the tissues of the gut and the fact that the virus is excreted for up to six weeks can mean it acts as a booster to other people who come into contact with the vaccinated person. The virus is weakened to the point it is incapable of causing disease but among the weakened virus there may be a few that have retained their virulence but these are not at a level that can establish a clinical infection.

So for the virus to become a problem it has to be repeatedly transmitted from person to person in a population in a way that allows the virus population in increase the percentage of potentially virulent organisms, this can only occur in populations with low vaccination rates and often requires other factors that impact on the levels of resistance.

Because the virus has to deal with so many challenges vaccine derived outbreaks tend to be very limited, the virus rarely if ever reaching the level of virulence seen in the wild virus. The individuals most at risk tend to be the very young or those who are immunocompromised. Outbreaks are managed by attempts to increase the vaccine coverage to interrupt transmission, though the presence of the disease may increase distrust of the vaccine.

There is a debate as to whether all polio vaccination should use the kill virus or subunit vaccines used in most countries, the problem is that while these carry no risk they are also far less effective.
 
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Related to Viruses in Vaccines that can mutate and spread

1. How do viruses in vaccines mutate and spread?

Viruses in vaccines can mutate and spread when they are exposed to different environments and conditions. This can happen during the production process or when the vaccine is administered to individuals with weakened immune systems. The mutations can potentially make the virus more virulent or resistant to the vaccine, allowing it to spread to others.

2. Can viruses in vaccines cause outbreaks?

While it is possible for viruses in vaccines to mutate and cause outbreaks, this is a rare occurrence. Vaccines undergo rigorous testing and quality control measures to ensure their safety and effectiveness. Additionally, the immune response triggered by the vaccine can prevent the mutated virus from causing severe illness.

3. What measures are in place to prevent viruses in vaccines from mutating and spreading?

Vaccine manufacturers follow strict guidelines and protocols to minimize the risk of viruses mutating and spreading. This includes using highly controlled production processes and continuously monitoring the vaccines for any changes. Additionally, post-marketing surveillance is conducted to identify any potential issues with the vaccine.

4. How can we prevent the spread of mutated viruses from vaccines?

The best way to prevent the spread of mutated viruses from vaccines is by ensuring high vaccination rates. When a large portion of the population is vaccinated, it creates herd immunity, which protects those who cannot receive the vaccine or are at a higher risk for complications. Additionally, following proper hygiene and infection control practices can help prevent the spread of any viruses.

5. Are there any long-term consequences of viruses in vaccines mutating and spreading?

The long-term consequences of viruses in vaccines mutating and spreading are still being studied. However, it is important to note that vaccines have been proven to be one of the most effective public health measures in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. The benefits of vaccination far outweigh the potential risks of mutated viruses.

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