What is Vaccines: Definition and 40 Discussions

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight a disease that has already occurred, such as cancer).The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections.The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner (who both developed the concept of vaccines and created the first vaccine) to denote cowpox. He used the phrase in 1798 for the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae Known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox. In 1881, to honor Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed. The science of vaccine development and production is termed vaccinology.

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  1. russ_watters

    Once a Year COVID Vaccines

    We've been speculating about this happening for a couple of years: https://www.cnn.com/2023/01/23/health/fda-covid-vaccines-strategy-shift/index.html I think at this point most of us saw this coming, but it will still be interesting to see how the transition happens, both for the vaccine and...
  2. hutchphd

    COVID Designer viruses as vaccines: yea or nay?

    To me it seems that the response to COVID19 was limited more by social reluctance to vaccinate (and foot the bill for said pan-vaccination) than the medical prowess necessary for the developmaent of safe and effective vaccines. For a hypothetical more deadly virus this could have catastrophic...
  3. jim mcnamara

    COVID Covid vaccines - CDC report on associated mortality

    https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7043e2.htm?s_cid=mm7043e2_w CDC MMWR report on research: Weekly / October 29, 2021 / 70(43);1520–1524 "COVID-19 Vaccination and Non–COVID-19 Mortality Risk — Seven Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 14, 2020–July 31, 2021" This...
  4. bhobba

    Is the Waning of Covid Vaccines over Time a Big Issue?

    This started from the following post: We have no idea if we will need to keep boosting every few months. The latest information I am aware of is the following: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/10/04/pfizer-covid-vaccine-protection-against-infection-tumbles-to-47percent-study-confirms.html That...
  5. russ_watters

    Are the COVID Vaccines Unusually Ineffective?

    Background: While discussing a moderator action in the private forum a statement was made that points to a potentially fundamental misunderstanding of how vaccines/vaccinations work that may be pervasive regardless of which side is correct. I'm spinning that discussion off and re-starting it...
  6. berkeman

    COVID Options for Travel to China with Chinese-Made Vaccines

    I'm in a tough spot right now, and would appreciate learning about my options. I'm fully vaccinated with the Moderna vaccine, and reasonably good for travel options to most western countries for business trips now (modulo the Delta variant surge and its restrictions). I really need to travel...
  7. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Covid-19 mRNA/LNP Vaccine: understanding Biodistribution

    When mRNA/LNP vaccine gets injected into the upper arm (30 µg for BionTech/Pfizer, 100 µg for Moderna), small amounts get distributed to other organs. Source: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2021/01/21/mrna-vaccines-what-happens Source...
  8. nomadreid

    Medical Toxicity for fetuses during 2-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

    The article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3888271/ claims (if I read it correctly) that there was an unusual increase in fetal deaths reported via the VAERS reporting system (which, it must be said, anybody can report, so the data there has to be taken with a grain of salt-- but...
  9. mktsgm

    Mechanism of Covid vaccines

    As the Covid vaccines become more prevalent worldwide, the hospitalization and mortality rates are coming down hearteningly. Actually, what happens after vaccination? 1) Vaccination causes the production of antibodies. So when later infection happens, the antibodies are up and ready to bind...
  10. MidgetDwarf

    Question regarding Penicillin Allergy and Covid Vaccines

    Greetings. I have been contemplating getting the Covid Vaccine. However, I have a sever allergy to Penicillin. The last time I received penicillin, I was a young child. Difficulty breathing/hives, and went to the hospital. Anyways, I have been reading online to see if a Covid vaccine is safe...
  11. bhobba

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    I have mentioned it in passing before, but I reread it in a recent article, so thought I would post it for reference: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-05-tiny-vaccine-breakthrough-covid-cases.html In those vaccinated .0007% hospitalisations and .0001% deaths. Please keep these figures in...
  12. harjunmaa

    COVID Authentic Vaccines: Ensuring Safety at Vaccination Sites

    Falsified vaccines are not uncommon, as far as I know. How do they know a vaccine is authentic at a vaccination site that has no laboratory?
  13. mktsgm

    COVID Covid Vaccines: Is the 2nd Dose Different?

    Many of the Covid vaccines at present need two doses. Is the second dose, the same as the first dose, in terms of its contents and dosage? I specifically want to know if there is any variation in the contents of the second dose. Thanks.
  14. bhobba

    Medical Australia to Make mRNA Vaccines

    Here in Aus, IMHO, we have not been proactive enough. Finally, someone is taking a more long term view: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-21/victoria-to-develop-mrna-covid19-vaccine-facilities/100083372 Thanks Bill
  15. mktsgm

    Medical Determination of T-cell response in Covid vaccines

    Presently some 4-5 Covid vaccines are popular worldwide. pfizer, moderna, astrazeneca, sputnik to name a few. Some Chinese and Indian vaccines are also in the selected markets. It is said that all these vaccines elicit robust antibody responses against the SARS-cov2 virus. My question is if...
  16. Evo

    Mammograms and Covid vaccines

    I saw this today, and it's something for women to know. Mammograms Should Be Scheduled Before COVID-19 Vaccine or 4 to 6 Weeks After, Experts Say https://www.everydayhealth.com/cancer/breast-cancer/mammograms-should-be-scheduled-before-or-4-to-6-weeks-after-covid-19-vaccine-experts-say/
  17. Astronuc

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) - not just for Coronavirus vaccines

    https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/02/05/1017366/messenger-rna-vaccines-covid-hiv/ I would expect Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman to be awarded the Noble Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The technology may be applied to other viruses.
  18. cybernetichero

    COVID Will COVID vaccines become part of normal immunisation regimes?

    I can't post unless I put a message here but my question is pretty clear and there's nothing to add.
  19. pinball1970

    COVID 19 mutations and implications for the vaccines

    SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 escapes neutralization by south African Donar plasma from the abstract SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2, a novel lineage of the Coronavirus causing COVID-19, contains multiple mutations within two immunodominant domains of the spike protein. Here we show that this lineage exhibits...
  20. hagopbul

    Freezing temperature of vaccines

    Hello all: I have this question , as we all watch the vaccine of Covid-19 reach the market I had this question if the storage temperature of this vaccine is between -20 c to -70c Why the nano droplets in this liquid do not create ice the liquid is not freezing under that conditions although it...
  21. mktsgm

    Medical Which COVID vaccines have adjuvants?

    The Covid disease has caused the emergence of the many of types of vaccines like DNA, mRNA, whole-inactivated-virus etc. Also many companies have brought on similar vaccines (Pfizer and moderna's mRNA vaccine). I want to know if any of these vaccines have adjuvants present in them. Which of the...
  22. C

    Vaccines and Immune Response

    My impression is that the vaccines being administered in the United States - not sure about the vaccines in other countries such as the UK - create an immune reponse to the SARS-COV-2 spike protein. Naively, one might ask why have a vaccine against a single viral protein when a virus has many...
  23. mktsgm

    COVID Those who had covid infection are also advised for vaccines. Why?

    Normally, when a person gets infected by a virus and subsequently recovers from it, it is understood that he had developed sufficient antibodies. One can surmise that his T-cell contribution also could be satisfactory in its fight against the infection. In my view, the vaccines are supposed to...
  24. W

    COVID Covid-19 vaccines: excitement or fear?

    When I heard or read the news that giving vaccines will be mandatory, I have a feeling of getting paranoid about it and can’t control myself not to worry about it. Are you guys feel the same way around?
  25. G

    Medical Can you be injected with two different vaccines?

    If after a vaccine of suppose 70% efficacy is given to a person ,he will develop antibodies . Now after a month new vaccine comes with 95% efficacy. Can he be injected new vaccine ? What about antibodies already in him? Can many types of antibodies remain and have no adverse effect and do not...
  26. Evo

    Informative paper on Flu Vaccines

    If you ever wondered about the efficacy of flu vaccines, or why you should get one, or even why they differ every season...read on. https://www.uabmedicine.org/-/flu-strains-explained-and-how-the-vaccine-works
  27. C

    Vaccines in Sci-Fi: Exploring Dystopian Outcomes of Mass Vaccination

    Any vaccines related themes in sci-fi? I'm thinking what if majority of the world was vaccinated against covid-19. Then 2 years later, there are side effects of say infertility or neurological deficit or slow death. It can decimate the world's population leaving only some hidden population in...
  28. N

    Viruses in Vaccines that can mutate and spread

    Besides Polio. What other viruses in vaccine can mutate and spread? The Polio type 2 wild viruses were supposed to be eradicated already. http://polioeradication.org/news-post/global-eradication-of-wild-poliovirus-type-2-declared/ But recently. It's resurging. Is there possibility that...
  29. BillTre

    Cholera Vaccines Being Tried Out

    Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. One of the Horseman of the Apocalypse (pestilence). It causes extreme diarrhea which can cause death from dehydration. It is spread through drinking water contaminated with human waste. Vaccines are now being tested in real non-lab situations...
  30. jim mcnamara

    News EU court on vaccines and aftereffects of vaccines

    http://www.cnn.com/2017/06/21/health/vaccines-illness-european-court-bn/index.html If I understood correctly, the court found that the circumstance of getting a vaccine can be attributed to later problems, without any scientific reports to back up the assertion. Maybe my view is...
  31. berkeman

    Medical Trivalent vs. Quadrivalent Flu Vaccines This Year

    I try to get my flu shot early each year because of my medical work, and I got mine a couple of days ago. The pharmacy only had Trivalent vaccine, so that's what I got. But looking into the Quadrivalent vaccine, it looks like the extra protection (against both B strains) might have been worth...
  32. G

    Medical Creating Pseudo Vaccines: The Potential of Synthetic Antigens and Peptides

    Is there a list of all known antigens for pathogens and the amino acid sequence for the proteins? If so, why doesn't someone just take that list, create the peptide in an automatic synthesizer, put the peptide into the syringe and activate the immune system by injecting it? Would it work? If...
  33. S

    Vaccines. what exactly is the significance of using killed microbes

    vaccine may contain attenuated microorganisms, killed microorganisms or toxoids. Certain vaccines contain attenuated forms or killed forms or toxoids. For example, in case of cholera, rabies, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, we use killed form. Why can't we form attenuated forms here? Is...
  34. D

    Non-natural childbirth, vaccines

    Two related questions. First, could C-sections and surgically-assisted births create a growing subset of the population who cannot survive "natural" childbirth? Second, the CDC and other sites list over 30 recommended vaccines. In the same vein as question above, could this give rise over...
  35. W

    Vaccines interfering with other genetic traits?

    Hello. I working on a school project in which I will discuss non-traditional risks associated with immunization measures. I am looking for empirical evidence that shows that vaccines have in the past altered hereditary traits, such as eye/hair, color, etc. I know that such cases are rare, but I...
  36. Evo

    Medical Free Flu Vaccines and pleurisy

    My company is giving free flu vaccinations at my office the end of October, but I think I will opt to use my free voucher to get it sooner at the doctor. I've gotten the free flu vaccines for the last couple of years and I am so glad I did. I'm trying to convince Evo Child to get a...
  37. J

    Medical Mercury in Vaccines: Doses, Evidence & Neurological Disorders

    Was mercury used as a preservative in vaccines, and if so, in what doses, and is there any evidence that this caused increased numbers of neurological/psychiatric disorders?
  38. Evo

    Medical Parents claim religion to avoid vaccines for kids

    I find this appalling. How is it that people don't understand the benefits of vacinations and how miniscule the percent of serious adverse reactions are. http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071018/NEWS07/710180330/-1/NEWS07
  39. Monique

    Unraveling the Mystery of Vaccines for Hepatitis B & C

    I am wondering why it is that we have a vaccine for the Hepatitis B virus and not for the Hepatitis C virus..
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