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Was energy already quantized 10^-43 seconds after the Big Bang?

  1. Apr 23, 2012 #1
    Good evening. I am wondering if energy has always been quantized. I read that the shortest time after the Big Bang (the time it took for gravity to separate first) was 10^-43 seconds. At these moments of earliest symmetry breaking, was energy already discrete, or did quantum mechanics emerge some time afterwards?

    Thank you in advance.
  2. jcsd
  3. Apr 24, 2012 #2


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    This should probably be moved to the quantum physics forum, but, the short answer is after T = 0 + planck time, the rules of quantum physics appear to be in charge of the universe.
  4. Apr 25, 2012 #3
    Which particles existed at the Planck time?
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