What is Gene expression: Definition and 19 Discussions

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enables it to produce end products, protein or non-coding RNA, and ultimately affect a phenotype, as the final effect. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein-coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and small nuclear RNA (snRNA), the product is a functional non-coding RNA. Gene expression is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in 1958, further developed in his 1970 article, and expanded by the subsequent discoveries of reverse transcription and RNA replication.The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.
In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait. The genetic information stored in DNA represents the genotype, whereas the phenotype results from the "interpretation" of that information. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's structure and development, or that act as enzymes catalyzing specific metabolic pathways.
All steps in the gene expression process may be modulated (regulated), including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Regulation of gene expression gives control over the timing, location, and amount of a given gene product (protein or ncRNA) present in a cell and can have a profound effect on the cellular structure and function. Regulation of gene expression is the basis for cellular differentiation, development, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may therefore serve as a substrate for evolutionary change.

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  1. BugKingpin

    Exploring the Physics of Gene Expression: A Math/Physics Major's Perspective

    Hello everyone, I am interested in researching the underlying physics of gene expression. I'm a junior in a math/physics double bachelors program.
  2. S

    Biology Which method would be wrong to use for gene expression?

    I've been struggling, no matter what I try to do I can't come up with a solution. The answer is in situ, but in my mind it would work perfectly fine. The only thing we would do is just use an RNA probe complementary to the gene we are trying to detect and it should light up the moment the gene...
  3. C

    Compute steady states of gene expression

    Homework Statement A bacteria that normally divides every 20 minutes express gene X. The production rate of protein X is 5nM/min. The protein is stable and does not degrade. What is the concentration of X in the steady state?The same bacteria enter into a stress state at t=0 for 3 hours...
  4. I

    Does histone H3K9 de-acetylation stop gene expression?

    I've read in a few places that acetylation of histones creates transcription activation rather than repression (the common example being: H3K9). What I am curious, with the absence of this acetylation (I'm guessing this would the process de-acetylation), do the genes that were previously...
  5. Ygggdrasil

    Celebrating RNA Day: Exploring the Diverse Roles of RNAs in Gene Expression

    Today (AUG 1) is RNA Day, an international celebration of one of the most versatile biomolecules in existence. What are some areas of RNA research that excite you most? Some of the most intriguing areas of current research to me (with example links for further reading): The role of RNAs in...
  6. BillTre

    Structural Choromsomal Hierarchies and Gene Expression

    There have been occasionally questions/comments about gene control. This should feed the hunger for knowledge. Here is an open access review article: Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila. It discusses some not widely known aspects of control of gene expression in...
  7. Jimster41

    What causes oak trees to develop galls and how do they benefit the gall wasp?

    How does the Gall Wasp get an Oak tree to make these? http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/galls-oak https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gall_wasp I am not able to find anything other than "induced by chemicals secreted by the wasp" more or less. I have been looking at these over the last six...
  8. G

    Methods of Regulating Proteins

    I have been looking into different methods of regulating protein activity for a project. I think it is pretty interesting and I want to learn more about this. I want to learn about the different methods out there, if you know of any cool or helpful regulation techniques I would certainly...
  9. B

    What are Mr. Bruce Harper's interests in physics and medicine?

    Introducing myself. - After many years in various technical fields, I moved into the people-helping world with teaching and psychotherapy. Physics and medicine, of course, have always played important parts in my world. I would say, though, that mental processes including gene expression...
  10. Silicon Waffle

    Gene expression for bigger limbs

    Take for example a fetus of 2 weeks old and a baby of 2 years old. The fetus doesn't show any limbs, skull. How do I know that is a human fetus ? :nb)
  11. Pythagorean

    "Mind-controlled" gene expression

    Mind-controlled transgene expression by a wireless-powered optogenetic designer cell implant. Kind of a sensationalized title, since it's really just interpreting brain waves through a BCI, but neat anyway. http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141111/ncomms6392/full/ncomms6392.html
  12. R

    How to find the mechanism on differential gene expression

    We have been doing research on the differential expression of one gene between two cell lines (A and B cell lines), with high expression in A cell line and no expression in B cell line. We found that ~250 bp in the promoter of the gene has its activity in A cell line, but no activity in B cell...
  13. B

    Exploring Gene Expression: What Shapes Our Ability to Change?

    What makes us able to change the expression of some genes and unable to change the expression of other genes?
  14. J

    Gene expression during gastrulation

    Hey guys, I've got a developmental question for yall. How would you experimentally compare gene expression during gastrulation in birds with that in frogs? I've been racking my brain trying to think of this, and the only way I can think of is to use a microarray, since it allows you to look at...
  15. L

    How Does Selective Gene Expression Create Diverse Cell Types?

    Question on Gene expression!? Explain how selective gene expression yields a variety of cell types in multicellular eukaryotes. Explain how eukaryotic gene expression is controlled, and compare it to gene control in prokaryotes. can anibody tell me the answers??! thanks :shy:
  16. U

    Gender Gene Expression in Males vs. Females

    In a male, gender gene is expressed as XY, so people know how a male to be male by its Y, but in a female, the gene is XX, and I am wondering which one of XX is characterized for female... If the left one is, then what is the functionality of the right one ?
  17. P

    Can you tell me what exactly is gene expression ?

    Can you tell me what exactly is gene expression ? I think it is the expression of a gene, correct ? By the way, I see my teacher usually sits in front of his computer, with a long page full of amino acids, I guess he might take it from somewhere's database, but do you know why people usually...
  18. J

    Exploring Regulation of HSP Gene Expression: Seeking Advice

    I was trying to find something about regulation mechanisms for expression of HSP genes, but no luck. Thing is I was thing about, maybe, possibility of thermo unstable repressor mechanism, but I don’t know how much that is possible. Any comments or information would be great.
  19. iansmith

    Power law governs gene expression