Structural Choromsomal Hierarchies and Gene Expression

In summary, the conversation discussed the topic of gene control, specifically in Drosophila and other metazoans, such as mammals. The main idea is that the 3D structure of DNA and the binding of specific proteins play a crucial role in controlling gene expression. The conversation also mentioned the impressive work being done to understand this complex process, with the use of diagrams and physical models like loop extrusion enzymes. The 3D organization of DNA in the nucleus is a hot topic in biology, and many are working to develop new tools to study it.
  • #1
BillTre
Science Advisor
Gold Member
2,529
10,125
There have been occasionally questions/comments about gene control. This should feed the hunger for knowledge.
Here is an open access review article: Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila.

It discusses some not widely known aspects of control of gene expression in Drosophila and at least some other metazoans (multi-cellular animals), including mammals.
The main idea is the 3D structure of the DNA /chromosomes is involved in control gene expression, and proteins binding specific sequences are important to that.
Loops of DNA are involved in how this works, and there are some diagrams illustrating the ideas.

The complex functioning of the nucleus's information machine is amazing!
The work to figure it out is impressive!
 
  • Like
Likes Drakkith
Biology news on Phys.org
  • #2
The three-dimensional organization of DNA in the nucleus and its dynamics (sometimes referred to as the 4D nucleome) is definitely a very hot topic in biology right now and many are working to try to develop new tools to study the question. It's still somewhat nebulous the extent to which all of this organization is important in controlling gene expression and how these mechanisms are regulated. Various labs have published some interesting papers proposing physical models (based on the action of "loop extrusion" enzymes) to explain some of the data on how these "topologically associating domains" form:
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/47/E6456.long
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124716305307
 
  • Like
Likes BillTre
  • #3
Here's a nice you tube movie illustrating how the loop extrusion mechanism is supposed to work.
It makes it clear how things don't get tangled up.

Guess you might call it anti-entanglement! :smile:
 

Related to Structural Choromsomal Hierarchies and Gene Expression

1. What are structural chromosomal hierarchies?

Structural chromosomal hierarchies refer to the organization and arrangement of genetic material within a cell's nucleus. This includes the hierarchical organization of chromatin, chromosomes, and genes, which allows for proper regulation and expression of genetic information.

2. How do structural chromosomal hierarchies affect gene expression?

The structural chromosomal hierarchies play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by determining which genes are accessible and available for transcription. The higher level of chromosomal organization, such as the formation of chromatin loops, can also influence the activation or repression of specific genes.

3. Can changes in structural chromosomal hierarchies lead to diseases?

Yes, alterations in the structural chromosomal hierarchies can contribute to various genetic disorders and diseases. For example, chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations and inversions, can disrupt the normal gene expression patterns and lead to abnormal cell function and potential diseases.

4. How do factors such as environmental cues and developmental stages impact structural chromosomal hierarchies?

Environmental cues and developmental stages can influence the structure and organization of chromosomal hierarchies by altering the accessibility of genes to regulatory factors. For instance, exposure to certain environmental stressors can lead to changes in chromatin structure, which can affect gene expression.

5. What techniques are used to study structural chromosomal hierarchies?

There are several techniques used to study structural chromosomal hierarchies, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome conformation capture (3C), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). These methods allow researchers to visualize and analyze the organization and interactions of genetic material within the nucleus.

Similar threads

  • Biology and Medical
Replies
11
Views
2K
  • Biology and Medical
Replies
8
Views
1K
  • Biology and Medical
Replies
8
Views
2K
  • Biology and Medical
Replies
1
Views
1K
Replies
17
Views
3K
  • Biology and Medical
Replies
10
Views
2K
Replies
1
Views
1K
Replies
2
Views
3K
  • Biology and Medical
Replies
11
Views
5K
Replies
5
Views
2K
Back
Top