What is Measurement apparatus: Definition and 13 Discussions

Quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement is a special type of measurement of a quantum system in which the uncertainty of the measured observable does not increase from its measured value during the subsequent normal evolution of the system. This necessarily requires that the measurement process preserve the physical integrity of the measured system, and moreover places requirements on the relationship between the measured observable and the self-Hamiltonian of the system. In a sense, QND measurements are the "most classical" and least disturbing type of measurement in quantum mechanics.
Most devices capable of detecting a single particle and measuring its position strongly modify the particle's state in the measurement process, e.g. photons are destroyed when striking a screen. Less dramatically, the measurement may simply perturb the particle in an unpredictable way; a second measurement, no matter how quickly after the first, is then not guaranteed to find the particle in the same location. Even for ideal, "first-kind" projective measurements in which the particle is in the measured eigenstate immediately after the measurement, the subsequent free evolution of the particle will cause uncertainty in position to quickly grow.
In contrast, a momentum (rather than position) measurement of a free particle can be QND because the momentum distribution is preserved by the particle's self-Hamiltonian p2/2m. Because the Hamiltonian of the free particle commutes with the momentum operator, a momentum eigenstate is also an energy eigenstate, so once momentum is measured its uncertainty does not increase due to free evolution.
Note that the term "nondemolition" does not imply that the wave function fails to collapse.
QND measurements are extremely difficult to carry out experimentally. Much of the investigation into QND measurements was motivated by the desire to avoid the standard quantum limit in the experimental detection of gravitational waves. The general theory of QND measurements was laid out by Braginsky, Vorontsov, and Thorne following much theoretical work by Braginsky, Caves, Drever, Hollenhorts, Khalili, Sandberg, Thorne, Unruh, Vorontsov, and Zimmermann.

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  1. Marco211298

    I Doubts regarding my interpretation of Wigner’s Friend Scenario

    I have some doubts regarding my personal interpretation that i was contemplating about in the context of Wigner's friend experiment (also tested in the laboratory recently). Could it be that a system is always in a superposition, and when we perform a measurement, we obtain a definite value due...
  2. M

    B Spin collapse in a magnetic field

    Basic descriptions of spin such as the beginning of Lindley's "Where does the weirdness go" state that an electron's spin doesn't exist or is "indeterminant" until measured (e.g. passed through a Stern-Gerlach field). However, isn't the magnetic field nonzero essentially everywhere (albeit...
  3. Someone_physics

    A Conditional time evolution entropy and the experimenter?

    Question --- So I've done a calculation which seems to suggest if I combine the system of a measuring apparatus to say an experimenter who "reacts" to the outcome of the the measurement versus one who does not. Then the change in entropy in both these situations is bounded by: $$ \Delta S_R...
  4. Quantum Alchemy

    I What exactly is a measurement device and how does it work?

    What exactly is a measurement device and how does it carry out a measurement? For instance, in the double slit experiment, you always hear about particle/wave duality. When it's not being measured it behaves like a wave but when a measuring device is placed by the slits, it behaves like a...
  5. L

    I Is the Measurement Apparatus made up partly of electrons? Perhaps not.

    This is related to the thread "Is quantum theory a microscopy theory?" discussed mostly by Ph.Ds. I make this new thread so as not to disturb the experts discussions or even hijack or close it prematurely. In message #27 of...
  6. adamaero

    TTL, voltage, one-wire test rig

    Spec My job, as an undergraduate EE student, is to create a test rig for offsite electronics (environmental sensors hooked up to a data logger, 12V batteries and solar panels). The test rig should be able to evaluate output from sensors (serial TTL, analog voltage, 1-wire) and output required...
  7. Danny Boy

    A Information of system vs system, apparatus and environment

    Suppose we have a quantum system ##Q## with an initial state ##\rho^{(Q)}##. The measurement process will involve two additional quantum systems: an apparatus system ##A## and an environment system ##E##. We suppose that the system ##Q## is initially prepared in the state ##\rho_{k}^{(Q)}## with...
  8. P

    A Evaluate this paper on the derivation of the Born rule

    I have encountered this paper "Curie Wiess model of the quantum measurement process". https://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0203460 Another work by the same authors is "Understanding quantum measurement from the solution of dynamical models" https://arxiv.org/abs/1107.2138 I am still evaluating the...
  9. J

    Advice on milligram/centigram precision scale

    Any suggestion on a good (but as usual not that expensive) scale that can measure at least to centigram precision? Searching online (e.g. Amazon) I did find some options but the reviews are usually mixed regarding precision (users will say that scales with milligram precision specs are not that...
  10. A

    Digital Force Meter: Is It Worthwhile for a Summer Project?

    hey, i am a sophomore engineering student and i was looking to make a project this summer, for some extra credit, so i had in mind a device that measures force in certain situations, as an example if we have a machine ( with pulleys and machines) with 2 sides, one side is where the force is...
  11. entropy1

    B Superposition of measurement apparatus

    Does measuring a polarized photon after it passed a polarization filter put the measurement apparatus in a superposition of detected/not-deteced (the photon)? Does this depend on whether the photon is part of an entangled pair?
  12. F

    Exploring Wind Tunnel Data Collection Methods for Physics Coursework

    I'm nearly at the end of my preliminary testing for a wind tunnel in my A2 physics coursework. My question for my project so far is: "Do different shaped objects exhibit different properties under the influence of high speed air". For my coursework I need to measure or observe something to get a...
  13. entropy1

    Decoherence in measurement apparatus

    I was wondering about decoherence: Suppose a measuring apparatus measures a single quantum property (say, spin). After the actual measurement of the property has taken place, the result 'decoheres' into the apparatus until the apparatus shows the measurement result, after which it decoheres...