# What is Snr: Definition and 24 Discussions

SNR Denton was a multinational law firm co-headquartered in London and Washington, D.C. The firm operated in 60 locations across 43 countries and had around 1,250 lawyers. It was one of the 25-largest law firms in the world, with revenues of around \$750 million in 2011/12.SNR Denton was formed through the merger of the UK-based Denton Wilde Sapte LLP and the US-based Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal LLP in September 2010. The firm was structured as a Swiss Verein and had a single management board but the partnerships of the predecessor firms were not financially integrated. In March 2013, SNR Denton merged with the international law firm Salans and the Canada-based law firm Fraser Milner Casgrain, forming Dentons.
The American Lawyer estimated SNR Denton to be the 29th largest law firm in the world by number of lawyers and 43rd by annual revenue in 2012, its last full year of operation.

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1. ### Engineering Digital Communications: Bit Error Rate (BER), C/N, Constellations

Problem Statement: I am not quite sure how to approach this problem and would appreciate the help. I how the C/N is closely related to the SNR (Eb/N0), but the question does not give the bandwidth or data rate for me to use the formula above. From the constellation diagram, my guess is this is...
2. ### Higher Gain for PMT: Does it Really Improve SNR?

Empirically, photomultiplier tube (PMT) is said to present better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than avalanche photodiode(APD). Some materials say that it is attributed to the higher gain and lower dark current of PMT. The benefit of higher gain is confusive for me, since I suppose that noise (of...
3. ### SNR for an underwater acoustic signal

Hi, I'm trying to model the transmission loss and SNR of an acoustic signal underwater. I'm using this expression to modelize the transmitted signal: y = sqrt(P)*exp(1i*2*fr*pi*t)' where P is the transmission power in watts, fr is the transmission frequency and t is the acquisition time. The...
4. C

### I Calculating signal to noise ratio for deimos data

I'm currently working with the 1d DEEP2 DEIMOS fits files (see http://deep.ps.uci.edu/deep3/specprimer.html) and am trying to define some exclusion criteria in Python 2.7 for the data based on the noise. What's the best way to quantify the noise in order to do this? Thank you!
5. ### A PET scanners -- SNR versus NECR....

In PET, 2D PET scanners have a superior SNR to 3D PET scanners as the influence of scatter and random events is lowered by the septa between detector rings. However, the NECR (noise-equivalent count rate), which is linearly proportional to SNR, is higher in 3D PET scanners. These two facts seem...
6. ### Estimating loss-limited transmission distance

Homework Statement A high-speed optical data communication system is composed of a transmitter, an unamplified transmission fiber link, and a receiver. The optical transmitter generates a 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal using a 1550-nm laser diode (linewidth=2 MHz) followed by a...
7. ### "SNR in X-ray Imaging: Calculating & Effects

Homework Statement (1) An ideal digital detector only suffers from quantum noise. If, after being exposed to 5 µGy the mean pixel value in the image is 100 and the standard deviation of the pixel values in the image is 5, calculate the SNR? The relationship between pixel value and detector...
8. ### Exploring the Relationship Between SNR and Bandwidth Limitations

Does SNR give a clue to bandwidth limitations? i. e. Would it help to figure out how the signal is distorted due to the limitation of the bandwidth? I think answer is "no" though.
9. ### LNA Gain vs SNR: Can Increasing Gain Reduce Sat Tx Pwr?

If you have a satellite that is transmitting at X dbm to a ground station, will increasing the gain of your LNA allow the satellite to use less transmit power? It seems like you'd have to improve the SNR in order to increase BER or Eb/No... If you just increase gain of the LNA, then yes, your...
10. ### Equation of SNR versus sigma square for BPSK

I would like to know in the following equation (attached) how can I incorporate BER for BPSK? is BER the same as Rc? The equation is relation between SNR and sigma square.
11. ### Adding SNR from multiple detectors

I am looking at the same object with two detectors. The SNR on each is 2, which is a low probability of detect given a single sensor. However, if I fuse the two what would be the SNR then? Would it be additive (SNR=4) or rss (SNR=2×sqrt(2)) or something more complicated?
12. ### Find Bandwidth Efficiency (R/B) given SNR and Eb/N0

Thank you in advance for your help!What is the bandwidth efficiency (R/B) of PSK for a bit error rate of 10^-7 on a channel with an S/N of 12 dB?[/b] From the graph, for BER= 10^-7, Eb/N0 = 11.2 dB./b]I have applied the formulae Eb/N0 = S/N * B/R Where, S/N is Signal power over noise power *...
13. ### SNR in dBV vs dBm - Insight Needed

Hello All I have a question regarding the SNR of an optical signal The optical signal was measured with a FFT Spectrum analyzer with the amplitude in dBV - the "SNR" was observed to be 60dB (peak value in dBV - noise floor value in dBV = "SNR" in dB) The SNR is typically reported as...
14. ### Phase detector for PLL with low SNR

I'm making a system with PLL. Here's more or less a principal scheme. What happens here is that the signal in this compensating system becomes really low and phase detector might not work properly. What I want to ask, what type or how to make a phase detector which can detect phase correctly...
15. ### Unusual SNR in the guide of a Spectrum Analyzer

If I posted in the wrong section, please feel free to move the thread in the correct one. Since this is my first post in the forum, I have yet to get a good grasp of it. With that said, let's begin! Prologue: SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), sometimes indicated with S/N, is a very important...
16. ### Learn How to Calculate SNR for Vector A in Time Series | Tips & Tricks

Hi, I have a vector 'A' of length 'n', whose values change with time. 'A' gives the change from a baseline 'B'. I calculate a signal as the distance A from the average of B, i.e., If 'B' is my baseline, then the signal at a time 't' due to A(t) would be given by S=(1/n)*(Ʃ1Ai -<B> - Ʃ2Ai...
17. ### Pulsed wideband SNR problem solved by a dynamic carrier?

I am disappointed by the fact that receiver noise seems to be directly proportional to bandwidth. With a raised cosine shaped pulse transmitter the bandwidth is the more or less the reciprocal of the pulse duration. Short pulses mean large bandwidths and that means greatly reduced range, at...
18. ### Does increasing slit size in spectroscopy affect SNR?

Anyone know a source for a mathematical analysis relating the slit-size/throughput for a spectrometer vs SNR? I find that I always get better SNR (but not necessarily resolution) with a wider slit or higher throughput monochromator when doing emissions work. Fritz
19. ### Measuring Co-Channel Interference: How Can It Be Done?

Dear all, I am trying to understand something for SNR, I know that is the ratio of the Power of a signal divided by the Power of noise. According to wikipedia Signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the power ratio between a signal (meaningful information) and the background noise...
20. ### Find Signal to noise ratio (SNR)

has a transfer characteristic |H(f) given in the link below. The transmission is at maximum error-free rate of 4,800 bps. Compute the SNR (signal-to-noise-ratio) at the channel output. Does the output signal suffer from any distortion? http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/263/79465468.jpg/...
21. ### How do you convert from Decibels to SNR for use with Shannon's equation?

Hi all, It's been many years since I did Mathematics last and I'm having trouble converting from db to the format required by Shannon's formula. I've googled and looked in the textbook but it's all a bit technical for me, I see logs and formula manipulation and go cross-eyed. I...
22. ### Tradeoff Bet. SNR and Bandwidth.

I read in my analog communication book: "A relatively small increase in bandwidth buys a large advantage in terms of reduced transmission power. But a large increase in transmitted power buys a meager advantage in bandwidth reduction. Hence, in practice, the exchange between B and SNR is...