# A doubt on Rutherford's Scattering experiment

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• Rishabh Narula
In summary, the conversation discusses the differences between the plum pudding model and the nuclear model of the atom. The main point is that the nuclear model, with all the charge concentrated at the center, allows for a much greater maximum force and impulse compared to the plum pudding model, where the charge is spread evenly throughout the atom. The conversation also mentions the importance of considering the interaction time in calculating the maximum impulse.
Rishabh Narula
Please refer to the image attached for the question.thanks.

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Rishabh Narula said:
Please refer to the image attached for the question.thanks.

Why are you unable to post your question on here rather than on the document. It makes for quoting the exact parts of your question tedious!

Zz.

RPinPA
Your bullet analogy is imperfect but can work. Post the text and your question HERE if you want to know more.

The expectation has nothing to do with where the mass is located. It is all about where the CHARGE is located. In the plum pudding model the positive charge of the atom is spread evenly throughout a sphere the size of the atom. The electrons are buried in the positive charge. As the alpha particle approaches an atom it feels the electric repulsion from the positive charge (forget the electrons for a second). However the maximum force is felt at the surface of the atom. Beyond that the force diminishes. Think of Gauss’ law. All of the positive charge outside the radius currently reached by the alpha particle imparts no net force. As the alpha particle approaches the center of the atom, the electric repulsion actually goes to zero. Contrast this with the nuclear model with all the charge concentrated at the center. The alpha particle can feel the full force of the nuclear charge at 1/100000 the radius. The force is proportional to 1/r^2, so the largest possible force is 1E10 greater than is possible in the plum pudding model! Of course you have to integrate force over the interaction time to get the maximum possible impulse in each model. However, you can appreciate how the maximum possible impulse in the nuclear model is still tremendously greater than in the plum pudding model.

Rishabh Narula

## 1. What is Rutherford's Scattering Experiment?

Rutherford's Scattering Experiment, also known as the Gold Foil Experiment, was a scientific experiment conducted by Ernest Rutherford in 1911 to study the structure of the atom. It involved firing alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and observing their scattering patterns.

## 2. What was the purpose of Rutherford's Scattering Experiment?

The purpose of Rutherford's Scattering Experiment was to test the prevailing model of the atom at the time, called the Thomson model, and to understand the structure of the atom. Rutherford wanted to see if the alpha particles would pass through the gold foil as expected or if they would be deflected in different directions.

## 3. What were the results of Rutherford's Scattering Experiment?

The results of Rutherford's Scattering Experiment were unexpected and groundbreaking. While most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil as expected, a small percentage were deflected at large angles and some even bounced back. This led Rutherford to conclude that the atom is mostly empty space with a small, dense nucleus at its center.

## 4. What was the significance of Rutherford's Scattering Experiment?

Rutherford's Scattering Experiment was significant because it disproved the prevailing model of the atom and led to the development of the modern atomic model. It also provided evidence for the existence of the atomic nucleus and paved the way for further research and discoveries in the field of nuclear physics.

## 5. How did Rutherford's Scattering Experiment contribute to our understanding of the atom?

Rutherford's Scattering Experiment revolutionized our understanding of the atom by revealing its structure and the existence of the atomic nucleus. It also helped to explain the behavior of alpha particles and provided evidence for the existence of protons and neutrons. This experiment laid the foundation for further advancements in atomic and nuclear physics.

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