Experiment Definition and 111 Discussions

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies.
A child may carry out basic experiments to understand how things fall to the ground, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). Uses of experiments vary considerably between the natural and human sciences.
Experiments typically include controls, which are designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements. Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method. Ideally, all variables in an experiment are controlled (accounted for by the control measurements) and none are uncontrolled. In such an experiment, if all controls work as expected, it is possible to conclude that the experiment works as intended, and that results are due to the effect of the tested variables.

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  1. Saba_467

    Chemistry projects that I can create at home

    There is no laboratory in my school ,looking for best chemistry project ideas for the 12th class students at minimal cost and that can be prepared at home . need suggestions on this,response would be appreciated
  2. M

    Construction How do you build a self-submersible boat?

    So I've been thinking for a long time now about making a self-submersible boat out of a plastic bottle without electronics. It should resurface by itself after a few minutes. I was thinking that it might increase its volume. By slowly dropping weights down the bottle and opening flaps on the...
  3. ayans2495

    Inverse-Square Law of Radiation

  4. hugo_faurand

    Get electrical signal of a piezoelectric with ultrasound

    Hello everyone ! I'm working on ultrasound probes, and I wanted to measure the electrical signal generated by a piezoelectric device (a transducer). Here is a sketch of the experiment : The goal of the experiment is to compare the electrical signal of the piezoelectric cell and...
  5. ayans2495

    Calculating initial temperature of iron block submerged into water

  6. ohwilleke

    B When Will Fermilab Release Its Initial Muon g-2 Measurement?

    Fermilab's E989 experiment is conducting the first precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (muon g-2) since the Brookhaven lab did so fifteen years ago. It is currently collecting Run-3 data for this experiment, and said that it would be releasing preliminary Run-1...
  7. I

    I Has this photon experiment ever been done?

    In the original experiment a photon 45 degrees polarized goes through two beamsplitters and comes out 45 degrees polarized and if you measure the individual path, you measure vertical or horizontal. I was just wondering, has the experiment below (or something simular) ever been done? Do we...
  8. K

    Eddy currents in Faraday's Law Experiment

    My explanation: A circular coil is connected to an AC supply at a frequency of 30-50 kHz (radio frequency). Therefore, an alternate current will be running through this “primary” coil, producing an alternating magnetic field. This magnetic field periodically decreases in strength, alternating...
  9. MUZE

    Airship on Earth but a reentry glider on Mars

    Could a hybrid airship like spacecraft ever so slowly shed speed using Mars' atmosphere while remaining low orbit while buoyant enough to serve as a glider?
  10. I

    Significant Figures with Experimental Values

    I was thinking of choosing 0.740, because it looks the most consistent with the other numbers because they all have a trailing zero. But then, in accordance with sig figs, 0.74 is the right answer. Which one should I choose? Thank you so much!
  11. Miles123K

    Products of Concentrated Barium Chloride Electrolysis?

    I did an electrolysis experiment with 1.6M Barium Chloride solution and the electrolyte turned black after the electrolysis. I am fairly positive that Chlorine was produced at the anode from the smell. However, Ba(OH)2 is colorless. I used graphite electrodes for this experiment. Does anyone...
  12. Abhimessi10

    Engineering Houston's piezoelectric method for finding the velocity of light

    Crystal acts as a diffraction grating.Although I don't know what that means.
  13. D

    Heat Insulation Experiments

    I'm doing some experiments on heat insulation with a model house (made of styrofoam, 3cm), heated with a 25W light bulb. In some papers I have read that it's important for the box to be two-layered, with only the outer layer being styrofoam and the thin inner layer consisting of material with a...
  14. A

    My Project on the Effects Copper Sulfate on Plant Growth (thank you PF for your help)

    Hello, I'm Andrew and I'm in 12th grade. If you are interested, I would like to share a presentation showing the process, observations, results of an experiment showing the physical effects copper sulfate can have on early plant development. I, with much help from some intelligent members of...
  15. A

    Help with an Experiment Concerning a Copper Sulfate

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I am doing an observation on the effects copper would have on plant growth. I have used copper sulfate to create increasing concentrations of copper in which I used to water my test plants. After further research of lately, I found that copper...
  16. O

    Tips - physics video experiments

    Hello. In my bachelor thesis I make motivational video experiments in physics (for high schools). I want to mention some already existing videos. I know videos from our country or channels from YouTube. However if I'm looking for some videos from Universities or professional organizations...
  17. N

    Sophisticated Experiment (Thermal Conductivity of Housing Materials)

    Hi everyone, I am currently a third year University Student in the UK and I'm in the midst of doing my dissertation. My dissertation topic (Effective methods of decreasing the thermal Conductivity of Housing Materials) requires that I produce several experiments to test and analyse a certain...
  18. A

    Help with Copper and Zinc's Effects on a Plant Experiment

    Hi, I'm in 12th grade and for my senior project I wanted to do an experiment on the effects that copper and zinc have on mung beans. I have copper sulfate pentahyde and zinc sulfate monohydrate, which I had purchased because I have seen information on other similar experiments where these were...
  19. RealKiller69

    I Quantum oscillator in 1D

    I have got a simple qstion. We have a particle in 1d oscillator with E0( fundamental level).We know that phi~ e^-x^2 for any x, so We can measure a position and get a value x=a, such that V(a)>E0 . In this case T<0 so the velocity of the particle is imaginary, how is this even possible?, (a real...
  20. S

    What can I investigate regarding the mechanics of bikes?

    << Multiple threads on the same subject merged, Thread moved to the schoolwork forums, and the OP has been reminded to show more effort on their own schoolwork questions >> I want an investigation/research that is simple to experiment practically (I don't have fancy equipment. My main piece of...
  21. DLeuPel

    I Experiments on dark energy

    I’m thinking about modifying some force related equations to include dark energy in them for an essay on physics. My reasoning is that if it can separate galaxies the objects in our day to day lives must also have a small tendency to move apart. To do so, I have to dispose of an already done...
  22. J

    Growing piezoelectric crystals experiment

    Homework Statement I'm not sure if this is a forum for these kinds of things. But anyways, at school I and a handful of other kids are devising an experiment to send up to ISS to test it over a period of 30 days next year. (Yep, we're quite fortunate to have this opportunity!) We've chosen to...
  23. ohwilleke

    I Is there new LHC data on coupling constant running?

    Question Has the LHC released any papers or reports on the observed running of any of the three Standard Model coupling constants with energy scale from either Run-1 or Run-2 data (or both data sets)? Last time I looked I couldn't find any data As of January 2014, I had not locate any papers...
  24. J

    How do I find the refractive index in sugar solutions?

    For class I conducted a experiment where I made sugar solutions, poured them into a glass prism container and used a laser pointer to find the refractive index. However, while typing in my results I realized I found the angle of deviation instead of the minimum angle of deviation since I didn't...
  25. J

    Making perovskite solar cell crystals w/o heating

    I'm a high schooler involved in a research in which we aim to grow perovskite crystals in microgravity. I've recently come across this article (https://scitechdaily.com/researchers-develop-a-better-method-for-making-perovskite-solar-cells/) in which they explain how to grow better perovskite...
  26. Natus Homonymus

    Need equipment and ideas for an experiment

    I require balls (about the size of a small marble) of different masses. I have no idea how to go about this and your help would be greatly appreciated! I also need an hemisphere (about 20cm in radius). I though of 3D printing the same, and it's extremely expensive. Any alternative ideas...
  27. S

    Experiment on Newtons First Law

    I am wondering if anyone knows of a good resource to see Newtons first law in action. For example, a block being pulled by increasing force until it moves?
  28. F

    Experiments about impact of mass in different areas

    There's important experiments showing the equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass ( the Eotvos experiments), but I couldn't really find many that show the equivalence of mass (or the stress-energy tensor) in other contexts. These are some of the variants of mass I'm interested in...
  29. D

    Experimental determination of the moment inertia of a sphere

    Hello, I was recently given the task to find experimentally the moment inertia of a sphere. I thought of rolling the sphere down an inclined plane and applying conservation of energy to the sphere. The equations i came up with are: mgh = 1/2mv2 + 1/2Iω2 solving for v^2 we come up with the...
  30. K

    I Experiment Ideas using an MRI scanner?

    So I've stumbled upon a really cool opportunity this summer, where I basically have a hospital which has agreed to let me do an experiment using their 3T MRI machine. I'm a physics undergrad and I want to do a physics experiment using the MRI, but I have absolutely no idea what to do. I've tried...
  31. MatthijsRog

    I Fitting a curve over noisy data

    Hi all, I performed a resonance experiment over the past two weeks, in which I collected the intensity of a Fabry-Perot cavity whilst adjusting the mirror distance with a piezo-element (the specific setup of the experiment is fairly detached from the question I will ask). My raw data is...
  32. ohwilleke

    I What false hints of new physics were most notable?

    Sometimes experimental or observational evidence from credible physicists points to new physics and then turns out to be wrong due to statistical flukes, experimental error or a theoretical analysis mistake. What cases of this happening do you find most notable, what showed that the hints were...
  33. CricK0es

    Uncertainty of a chosen value

    Homework Statement I have taken 5 sets of readings of voltage against angle for an experiment to determine specific rotation. (I'm using the maxima to determine the phase shift) So, having averaged these values and determined the maximum, I can then trace back to the angle at which this...
  34. tinocasals

    Nuclear physics interesting experiments and activities

    Hi there, I'm looking for some interesting activities regarding nuclear physics in high school. I already have: - building a cloud chamber with dry ice or peltier modules - simulating radioactive decay with dice - simulating Rutherford's experiment hitting with glass marbles a hidden target...
  35. ohwilleke

    I Anomaly aggregation and confirming old paper validity

    The Particle Data Group keeps a running, subject matter organized summary of the state of the art experimental results for the experimentally measured properties of hadrons and measurements of fundamental physical constants that is updated at least annually. Is there any comparable group that...
  36. S

    Millikan Oil Drop Experiment: Determining Elementary Charge

    Homework Statement Calculate the charge on each oil drop and determine the elementary charge on an electron given the following: Voltage (Attached) d (Distance between two charged plates) = 0.10m m (Of the droplet) = 1.57x10^-15 kg g = 9.8 kgm/s^2 Homework Equations q = mg*d / ΔV The Attempt...
  37. S

    Variables in a lab (controlled, independant and dependant)

    Hi! So it's new for me to do physics lab that way and my teacher is asking us to define the independant, dependant and controlled variables of every lab we're doing. I'm not quite sure what they refer to... For example, in a moment of inertia lab (see picture), I am asked this question. The...
  38. ohwilleke

    I Is there a fine structure constant running anomaly?

    Background The chart above, via Lubos Motl's blog which is standard in any textbook talking about supersymmetry, illustrates the running of the the inverse of the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) coupling constants with energy scale for the electromagnetic force...
  39. Alexander350

    Significant figures in a results table

    Homework Statement Basically there is a results table for the time taken for 20 oscillations. Three examples are 9.90, 11.16 and 12.68. I need to work out the time period to the correct number of significant figures. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I divide by 20 to get the time...
  40. J

    Why does my experimental value of g differ greatly?

    Homework Statement Hi, I did an experiment where I launched a soccer ball into projectile motion with my hand and took a video the situation. I uploaded it into the Tracker software to analyze it. The tracker software gave me a x-t graph, a y-t graph, and a y-x graph. From the y-t graph...
  41. ohwilleke

    I Is the new 3.0 TeV bump at ATLAS a fluke?

    The ATLAS experiment has seen a bump that could be a new particle at a mass of 3.0 TeV/c^2 with a local significance of more than three sigma, and a global significance of a bit more than two sigma in Run-2 data looking at decays of qqbb states to a W or Z boson and a Higgs boson. It is...
  42. V

    Experiment to measure EM waves

    Okay, let me prelude this by saying I only have an -EXTREMELY- limited understanding of classical physics, and zero knowledge of quantum mechanics. This is really just my asking a few questions in regards to an idea I had for an experiment, and what would be a good and accurate way to...
  43. A

    Estimating cyclette power

    Hi all! I have a cyclette with 8 resistance levels set magnetically using a knob (a magnet is moved near the rotating disk thereby increasing its rotating resistance). The distance from the pedal to the center is 0.165 m. At resistance level 4, if I put a weight greater than or equal to 0.750...
  44. E

    Winding Dilemma

    I attach an image of something I am experimenting with. The picture itself (and added text) should be self-explanatory. 1) Which way should my windings (clockwise or counter-clockwise) go around P1; P2; P3 & P4 for maximum voltage (V) ? [ 1 Ø ] [ 1 x single enamelled copper conductor ] [...
  45. dholbach

    Can a cathode ray tube be made from a light bulb?

    Light bulbs and cathode ray tubes are structurally similar in some respects. For example, both contain a filament -- in the light bulb, the filament heats up to produce light, while in a cathode ray tube, the filament emits electrons, which are then steered into a target (in a CRT TV, the...
  46. W

    How to linearise this equation for experiment?

    Homework Statement I have a rotating platform that spins as a mass attached to a wheel rotates the larger platform. The mass accelerates to the ground which spins the platform essentially. I am trying to calculate the moment of inertia of another mass which will be attached to the rotating...
  47. pchu

    Casimir force experiments under environmental EM noises?

    I've always been curious about how rigorous are the Casimir force measurements carried out, because a couple of years ago I read some news about people inventing perpetual motion machine which turned out to be draining power from environmental EM noises, say, radio station, wifi, 3G/4G that keep...
  48. M

    Setting up a circuit to drive a Laser Diode

    Hello fellow physics friends (alliteration: always a strong opener). I am writing today because I find myself struggling to complete something which ostensibly doesn't seem that difficult to the average physics undergrad working in a lab. However, electronics and circuits are definitely a...
  49. A

    Why are there modes in cantilever beam oscillation equations

    I'm doing an experiment measuring the relationship between length of a cantilever beam and period of oscillation when I twang it on one end, but I can't seem to understand the equation. The equation for measuring frequency is given here:https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2013/329530/ but I...
  50. M

    Calculating Magnetic Field from FFT Amplitude

    So a little bit of background: I work in an undergraduate lab at UMass Amherst and am currently building/optimizing a faraday magnetometer for use in the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab. The magnetometer works as follows. A laser is shone through a crystal with a particular Verdet Constant at...